Models Provide Explanatory Power

Why choose one particular model of a system over numerous possible others? Everything else being equal, which of course it never really is, our chosen model should be the simplest model that agrees with observations. As an acceptable even a good model it should agree to a reasonable degree of accuracy with most of the experimental data. Here I emphasize 'most,' as the model also implicitly says we ought to continually monitor up-and-coming newer techniques.

So if our aesthetic reasons are strong enough, then it is only necessary for a model to agree with most of our observations. A model also should possess explanatory power. The model of the bee hemocoel is in a modeling relation to the bee system and by implication to those of other arthropods, and so it is not just a simulation.

The idea of explanatory power forces us see about how to validate a proposed model. A model is valid only if we can test it, and most tests of the hemocoel have yet to be devised. However, models are not merely explanations, but they are probes to provoke nature into showing us behavior that a trained observer can then accept as an observation. Observations provide further inductive evidence for confirmation or counterexamples. As Karl Popper said, "science is not to validate models but to falsify them." Models help us spell out testable observations and predictions. If our predictions fail, the model is falsified, and then we must reformulate or abandon the model. So I leave this last as a challenge to the reader. I have found no reason to abandon this model yet.

It is also time to attempt a few simplifications of the whole subject by way of summing it up and of coming to an end. With a few exceptions, all of the examples we have used have been pictorial. The image has been descriptive or explanatory of some image's subject. Said a bit differently, I have accompanied the stated thing with a restatement, and this restatement has illustrated and helped define the thing stated. The thing stated and its restatement together constitute an analogy.

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