Packing Functions of Surfaces

In our devices, components surround a central silicon chip. Close configurations can provide power, remove heat and connect processors to other components. Packaging, consisting of three layers, supports the device. In the standard process for an Intel Pentium chip for example, droplets of solder pass current from the chip to the package. The grid of droplets or bumps connects to a network of copper wires in the top layer. These route to copper links that pass vertically through a plastic middle layer or core. On the bottom of the package core, the copper connections network through a third packaging layer to attach to larger pins that stick out from the packaging to connect to circuits on a mother board that link the processor to other components. This 'macro' design handles the forty-two million transistors on a Pentium 4 chip, but in biological packaging, elements having separate functions, such as nerves and capillaries, are much more closely associated at many different levels simultaneously.

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