Ref Energy from Photosynthesis

Rupa, D., P. J. Kiley, M. Segal, J. Norville, A. A. Yu, L. Wang, S. A. Trammel, L. E. Reddick, R. Kumar, F. Stellacci, N. Lebedev,

J. Schnur, B. D. Bruce, S. Zhang and M. Baldo (2004). Integration of photosynthetic protein molecular complexes in solid-state electronic devices. Nano Lett. 4(6): 1079-1083. (Abstract: Plants and pho-tosynthetic bacteria contain protein-molecular complexes that harvest photons with nearly optimum quantum yield and an expected power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. In this work, we demonstrate the integration of electrically active photosynthetic protein-molecular complexes in solid-state devices, realizing photodetectors and photovoltaic cells with internal quantum efficiencies of approximately 12%. Electronic integration of devices is achieved by self-assembling an oriented monolayer of photosynthetic complexes, stabilizing them with surfactant peptides, and then coating them with a protective organic semiconductor.)

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