Ref Respiration

Flight is energetically costly. The thoracic muscles of flying insects have the highest known mass-specific rates of oxygen consumption of any muscles.

Spiracles: Harrison, J. F. (1997). Ventilatory mechanism and control in grasshoppers. Am. Zool. 37: 73-81.

Tracheoles: Weis-Fogh, T. (1964). Functional design of the tracheal system of flying insects as compared with the avian lung. J. Exp. Biol. 41: 207-227.

Enhanced ventilation from muscular contraction: Komai, Y. (1968). Augmented respiration in a flying insect. J. Exp. Biol. 201: 2359-2366.

CHAPTER SIX: CAVITY TRANSPORT (Ref: Diffusion Rates)

Data from Macey, R. (1980). Mathematical models of membrane transport processes. In: Andreoli, T. et al. (eds.) Membrane Physiology. Plenum, New York, pp. 125-146.

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