Ref Selfreproducing Machines

V. Zykov, E. Mytilinaios, B. Adams and H. Lipson (2005). Robotics: self-reproducing machines. Nature435: 163-164. (Self-reproduction, central to life for evolutionary adaptation would be desirable in many engineered systems, but self-reproduction has yet to be incorporated in machines. These authors created simple machines or autonomous modular robots capable of physical self-reproduction using a set of cubes.)

CHAPTER THREE: BEAUTY BEFORE THE BEAST (Ref: Power Laws)

Massive graphs have degree distributions that obey power laws. In a power law degree distribution, the fraction of vertices having degree d is proportional to 1/df for some constant f > 0. The starting point for these ideas is random graph theory and a model, introduced in 1959 by Paul Erdos and Alfred Renyi, in which when we add links or subtract links one link at a time, the pattern evolves into that of a classical random graph.

Erdos, P. and A. Renyi (1960). On the evolution of random graphs. Mat. Kutato Int. Kozl 5: 17-60. Newman, M. (2002). The structure and function of networks. Comput. Phys. Commun. 147: 40-45.

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