Sparseness

Consider a graph of the connectivity within an animal at any resolution. Despite the huge numbers of vertices, connections in an animal have relatively few edges and are sparse. In a graph having n vertices, the maximum number of edges is n(n — 1)/2, or roughly n2/2. (I consider here only "simple" graphs, as opposed to multi-graphs, where more than one edge can join a pair of vertices.) In large graphs of the real-world variety, the number of edges is generally closer to n than to n2/2.

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