Surface Area Must Increase Relative to Volume

If our bee keeps her spherical shape, the surface of her body will have increased one hundred times, so ten times the original oxygen must enter her tissues through each square millimeter of her new surface area per minute. Similarly, ten times as much food energy must enter through each square millimeter of her gut each minute, and ten times as much waste must leave her body each minute. Therefore, to retain her present size, it behooves our bee to increase her surface area in contact with her environment relative to her volume; that is, she must increase her surface to volume ratio. Most animals increase surface to volume ratios by folding and packing surfaces into lungs, gills and microvilli. Folding and compacting the folds increase surface area and thereby increase opportunities for transfer without increasing the bulk of the body.

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