Surfaceto Volume Ratios

To appreciate how the need for a circulation relates to a system's size, be it animal or machine, we consider the system's surface-to-volume ratios. Compact efficient systems minimize extra space and weight. Efficiency of transfer of energy and materials increases when thin surfaces having maximal areas fold up compactly within minimal volumes. One example is how a hemo-coel and tracheal system are coordinated, matching their surfaces. Circulating hemolymph moves a wall's thickness away but alongside air flowing through the conduits and sacs of the respiratory system that interlace the bee's body.

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