Crickets Breeding Made Simple

Crickets Breeding Made Simple

With the Crickets Breeding Made Simple, which immediately downloads onto your computer, you are going to receive: Ground-breaking building tips for breeding crickets! Cricket maintenance, so that you keep your colony in top health forever! This allows you to: Save on monthly pet food expenses. Save yourself the troubles of looking for pet food during season when less food is available. Reduce the risks of have sick/virus-infected crickets to feed your pets, which can eventually cause sickness or even death to your pets. Make money and sell to other pet owners & pet shops. Purchase more pets, such as leopard gecko, bearded dragon from the money earned from selling crickets. Crickets are perhaps one of the slickest creatures when it comes to getting away. No matter how great you treat them, crickets by nature have a habit of trying to go off on their own. However, there is a sure-proofed way to keep any and all of your crickets at bay every single day of the year., but with this unique guide youll know how to keep your crickets healthy and strong for as long as they live. Inside this guide, you'll discover things that You are possibly doing to drive your crickets away as well as things that you can start doing to make them want to stay with you for as long as you want them around. This breakthrough guide simply opens your eyes to what you can do to keep your crickets around a lot longer. Read more here...

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Orthoptera Grasshoppers Locusts Katydids Crickets

Family Gryllidae (Crickets) Several species of crickets are important as food. In Southeast Asia, Brachytrupes portentosus lives in tunnels that are about 30 cm deep, usually one cricket per hole, and comes out only at night. They feed on young plants and are an agricultural pest. They are collected by digging, by filling the holes with water, or as they fly around lights at night. After the wings are removed they are eviscerated, then fried, grilled, or put into curry as a substitute for meat. They are sold by villagers in the markets. In the market at Chiang Mai in Thailand, the shopkeeper takes the crickets live from a plastic bag and spits them longitudinally from head to abdomen on a bamboo stick, three or four crickets per stick. They are then fried in oil in front of shoppers. FIGURE 1 Mass-reared edible house crickets, A. domesticus. FIGURE 1 Mass-reared edible house crickets, A. domesticus. 30 C or higher and fed diets equal in quality to those used in bringing conventional...

Mating in katydids and crickets Orthoptera Tettigoniidae and Gryllidae

Spermatophylax

During copulation the males of many species of katydids and some crickets transfer elaborate spermatophores, which are attached externally to the female's genitalia. Each spermatophore consists of a large, proteinaceous, sperm-free portion, the spermatophylax, which is eaten by the female after mating, and a sperm ampulla, eaten after the spermatophylax has been consumed and the sperm

The Field Crickets

His group of crickets includes Gryllus as its typical member, but entomologists give first place to a smaller brown cricket called Nemobius. There are numerous species of this genus, but a widely distributed one is N. vitta-tus, the striped ground cricket. This is a little cricket, about three-eighths of an mch in length, brownish in color, with three darker stripes on the abdomen, common .n fields and dcoryards (Fig. 35). In the fall the females lay their eggc m the ground w.th their slender ovipositors (D, E) and the eggs (F) hatch the following summer, he song of the male Nemobius is a continuous twitter- Fig. 36. The common black cricket, GryUus assimdis A, a male with wings raised in the attitude of singing. B, a female wi h lung ovipos.tor. C, young crickets recently hatched 'enlarged about times). D, a female inserting her ovipositor in the ground. E, a female with ovipositor buried full length in the ground Fig. 36. The common black cricket, GryUus assimdis A, a male with...

The Bush Crickets

The bush cri kets d ffer from the other crickets in having the middle joint in the foot larger and shaped more like the third joint in the foot of a katydid (Fig. 17 B). Among the bush crickets there ,s one notable singer common in the neighborhood of Washington. This is the jumping bush After the first of September i* is not hard to locate one of the performers, and when discovered with a flashlight, he is found to be a medium-s'zed, brown, short-legged cricket, built somewhat nn the style of Gry 11 us but smaller (Fig. 42). The male, however, while singing raises his wings straight up, after the manner of the tree crickets, and he too, carries a basm of liquid on his back much sought after by the female In fact the iqu d is so attractive to her that, at least 111 a cage, she is sometimes so persistent in her efforts to obtain it chat the male is clearly annoyed and tries to avoid her. One male was observed to say very distinctly by his actions, as he repeatedly tried to escape the...

Crickets

Crickets are insects in the order Orthoptera that comprise the ensiferan family Gryllidae. Some authors regard them as the superfamily Grylloidae with four families Myrmeco-philidae, Gryllotalpidae, Mogoplistidae, and Gryllidae. The group dates from the Triassic Period and today includes 3726 known living species and 43 extinct ones, 22 extant subfamilies and 7 extinct ones, 528 extant genera and 27 extinct ones. Most extant subfamilies are distributed worldwide.

Gryllidae

These crickets appear somewhatflatdorsally because a portion of the front wing is held horizontal over the body, instead of being held vertically, as in grasshoppers. The female ovipositor is usually needle-like, and the cerci are long. Eggs are laid singly or in small batches in soil, or in crevices. Nymphs and adults feed primarily on vegetation. Males stridulate by rubbing together modified regions of the front wings. Crickets do nothave a fixed song length. They will sing indefinitely as long as their surroundings are relatively warm the chirps slow in cool temperatures. Several species regularly occur indoors or around the perimeter of buildings in rural and urban areas. The Indian house cricket, Grylloides supplicans, is a common indoor pest in Central America. The very large African cricket, Macro-gryllus consocius, burrows in sandy areas along coastal southern Africa. These are social crickets they have loud songs and can be heard from a long distance. House cricket, Acheta...

The biology of insects

Most insects start life in an egg stage. The act of egg laying is called oviposi-tion.The reproductive adult females of many species lay their eggs specifically in the area where the offspring will feed. For example, greenhouse whiteflies lay their eggs on the foliage where the immatures will feed, and fungus gnats oviposit on the surface of the soil or growing medium where the larvae will develop. Insects have specialized organs called ovipositors for depositing the eggs in the appropriate location (figure 3).Some ovipositors are internal except during oviposition (as with most flies) others are external and very obvious (as with crickets and ichneu-monid wasps). A few insects, such as aphids, give birth to live young. (sometimes called incomplete metamorphosis) occurs in those insect species in which the young usually look very similar to the adults, except that wings are absent and they are not reproductively mature. In the immature stage, these insects are called nymphs (figure...

External Structure

Even in insects that retain two functional pairs of wings there are frequently modifications of these structures for other functions. In many Lepidoptera, for example, the wing margins are irregular and the wings appropriately colored so that when the insect is at rest it is camouflaged. The wings of male Orthoptera are commonly modified for sound production. In crickets and long-horned grasshoppers the hardened fore wings possess a toothed file (the modified cubital vein) and a scraper (a sclerotized ridge at the wing margin). Rapid opening and closing of the wings causes the file on one wing to be dragged over the scraper of the other wing and sound to be produced. In short-horned grasshoppers that sing the file is on the hind femur the scraper takes the form of ridged veins on the fore wings.

Description and biology

The red-kneed tarantula lives in a burrow it has dug out underground and lined with its spun silk. Its diet consists of centipedes and millipedes, beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, small frogs, lizards, and sometimes mice. It hunts at night, locating its prey by means of a special sensitivity to its sounds and

The described taxonomic richness of insects

The described species of insects are distributed unevenly amongst the higher taxonomic groupings called orders (section 1.4). Five major orders stand out for their high species richness, the beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), wasps, ants, and bees (Hymenoptera), butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), and the true bugs (Hemiptera). J.B.S. Haldane's jest - that God (evolution) shows an inordinate fondness for beetles - appears to be confirmed since they comprise almost 40 of described insects (more than 350,000 species). The Hymenoptera have more than 115,000 described species, with the Diptera and Lepidoptera having at least 150,000 described species each, and Hemiptera almost 100,000. Of the remaining orders of living insects, none exceed the approximately 20,000 described species of the Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, and katydids). Most of the minor orders have from some hundreds of to a few thousand described species. Although an order may be described as minor, this...

Insect contamination of food

Many societies consume insects as part of their diet (Figure 1.12). For example, aquatic beetles such as the giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus Lepeletier Serville, are eaten as a delicacy across south-eastern Asia. Chocolate-covered bees have been sold in speciality shops in the UK, and in North America some shops sell canned, fried grasshoppers (DeFoliart, 1988 Menzel and D'Aluisio, 1998), whilst Thai cooked crickets in tins are available via the world-wide web.

Insects In Popular Culture And Commerce

Totemic and food insects are represented in many Aboriginal artworks in which they are associated with cultural ceremonies and depiction of important locations. Insects have had a place in many societies for their symbolism, such as ants and bees representing hard workers throughout the Middle Ages of Europe, where they even entered heraldry. Crickets, grasshoppers, cicadas, and scarab and lucanid beetles have long been valued as caged pets in Japan. Ancient Mexicans observed butterflies in detail, and lepidopter-ans were well represented in mythology, including in poem and song. Amber has a long history as jewellery, and the inclusion of insects can enhance the value of the piece. Most urbanized humans have lost much of this contact with insects, excepting those that share our domicile, such as the cockroaches, tramp ants, and hearth crickets that generally arouse antipathy. Nonetheless, specialized exhibits of insects - notably in butterfly farms and insect zoos - are very popular,...

Insects as human food entomophagy

In this section we review the increasingly popular study of insects as human food. Probably 1000 or more species of insects in more than 3 70 genera and 90 families are or have been used for food somewhere in the world, especially in central and southern Africa, Asia, Australia, and Latin America. Food insects generally feed on either living or dead plant matter, and chemically protected species are avoided. Termites, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts, beetles, ants, bee brood, and moth larvae are frequently consumed insects. Although insects are high in protein, energy, and various vitamins and minerals, and can form 5-10 of the annual animal protein consumed by certain indigenous peoples, Western society essentially overlooks entomological cuisine.

Narrowwinged Damselfly

Grasshoppers, Katydids, Crickets, Mantids, Walkingsticks, and Cockroaches Order Orthoptera Immature stages Similar to adult but wings short or absent. Habits Many Orthoptera sing by rubbing one body part against another. Long-horned grasshoppers (p. 80) and crickets (p. 82) rub a sharp edge scraper) of one front wing over a filelike ridge file) on underside of other front wing. Slant-faced grasshoppers rub hind legs against the tegmina. Band-winged grasshoppers snap hind wings in flight. Males generally do the singing females of a few species produce soft noises. Song most often heard (calling song) functions mainly in getting the sexes together. Each species has a distinctive song and some Orthoptera can produce more than one type of sound.

Coneheaded Grasshopper

CAMEL CRICKETS and OTHERS Family Gryllacrididae Identification Similar to Tettigoniidae but usually wingless, gray or brown. Wings if present with 8 or more principal longitudinal veins, and FW of cf lacking sound-producing structures. Auditory organs generally lacking. Cave or Camel Crickets, Subfamily Rhaphidophorinae. Brownish, somewhat humpbacked appearance. Antennae contiguous at base or nearly so. Hind femora long. Occur in caves, cellars, under logs and stones, and in similar dark moist places. Most of our species belong to the genus Ceuthophilus. Jerusalem or Sand Crickets, Subfamily Stenopelmatinae. Large, robust, somewhat brownish. Tarsi not lobed, and more or less flattened laterally. Hind femora do not extend beyond apex of abdomen. These insects are western, occurring chiefly along the Pacific Coast. Nocturnal spend the day under stones or in loose soil. CRICKETS Family Gryllidae See also Pl. 2

Biodiversity Of Aquatic Insects 165

Springtails (Collembola), 166 Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), 167 Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata), 167 Stoneflies (Plecoptera), 167 Grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), 168 Earwigs (Dermaptera), 168 Lice (Phthiraptera), 168 Bugs (Hemiptera), 168 Wasps (Hymenoptera), 169 Hellgrammites and alderflies

General Functions Of Biogenic Amines

The physiological role of OA at different levels of the organism is well documented. As a stress hormone in the periphery and in the central nervous system OA prepares the animal for energy-demanding behaviors. This monoamine stimulates glycogenolysis, modifies muscle contraction, supports long-term flight, and regulates arousal in the central nervous system. OA and OA agonists can enhance behavioral responses, like escape or aggressive behavior in crickets and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees. Injection of OA can elicit flight motor behavior in locusts, even in isolated thoracic ganglia. It is assumed that in insects OA has functions similar to those of the adrenergic system in vertebrates.

Life History and Habits

Stridulation occurs in a large number of Orthoptera and serves to bring sexes together and to elicit certain behavioral responses leading to copulation. Stridulation is achieved in a great variety of ways, but, in most species, the principal method of sound production is either tegminal (crickets and katydids) or femoroalary (in many grasshoppers). In the former, the sound is typically produced when one tegmen is drawn across the other. The especially strengthened, toothed cubital vein (file) on one tegmen makes contact with the raised edge (scraper) of the other tegmen, and an adjacent area of wing, the mirror, is caused to resonate. In femoroalary stridulation it is normally the drawing of the hind femora across the tegmina that creates the sound. Another common method of stridulation, particularly among more primitive forms, is femoroabdominal, whereby the inside of the femur is rubbed over teeth or ridges on the side of the abdomen. Some grasshoppers make a clattering sound in...

Phylogeny and Classification

Paleontology, comparative morphology, and molecular studies suggest that the sister group of the Orthoptera is the Phasmida (see Flook et al., 1999). Quite possibly, the earliest orthopterans, belonging to the suborder Ensifera, evolved from phasmidlike ancestors early in the Carboniferous period. The early evolution of the Orthoptera led toward the specialization of the fore wings as tegmina, the development of stridulatory and tympanal organs, and the enlargement of the hind femora to accommodate the muscles for jumping (Carpenter, 1992). Even by the Upper Carboniferous period, there was a clear separation of the two major evolutionary lines, one of which led to the Ensifera (crickets, long-horned grasshoppers, etc.) and the other to the Caelifera (short-horned grasshoppers and their allies). This led to the suggestion that the two groups evolved independently from different protorthopteran ancestors (Ragge, 1955 Sharov, 1968 Hennig, 1981). Thus, some authorities, for example,...

The Hemipteroid Orders

On freshwater surfaces, moving or still, but a few species are marine. They feed on insects that fall onto the water surface. Veliids (water crickets) are primarily neotropical and oriental in distribution. Like gerrids, they are predaceous and mainly occur on the surface of moving or still fresh water. A few species are marine and others live in moist forest soil or among wet rocks.

Geographic distribution

Dordrecht Kluwer Academic, i989. Vickery, V. R. and D. K. McE. Kevan. The grasshoppers, crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent regions. Ulonata Dermaptera, Cheleutoptera, Notoptera, Dictuoptera, Grylloptera, and Orthoptera. Insects Arachnida Can., 14 (1986), 1-918.

Discovery And Characterization Of Cave Arthropods

Terrestrial cave arthropods Insects, arachnids, and millipedes are the dominant terrestrial groups living in caves. Not all orders are represented, however. Among the Hexapoda, the orders Collembola, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera predominate. The springtails (Collembola) are represented by many troglophilic (facultative cave residents) and troglobitic species and are important scavengers in many caves. Most cavernicolous orthopterans are troglophilic or trogloxenic (roosting in caves), with the cave crickets (Rhiphidophoridae) being the best known. As more tropical caves are studied, many new species of troglobitic true crickets (Gryllidae) are being described. Among

Rockcrawlers And People

In Greek mythology the Chimera (ki-MER-a) was a fire-breathing monster, part lion, part goat, and part snake. When first discovered high in the mountains of Canada in 1914, rock-crawlers were recognized as the chimeras of the insect world. The first-known species, Grylloblatta campodeiformis, was named after three other kinds of insects crickets, cockroaches, and diplurans. It was not until 1932 that these puzzling animals were placed in their very own order, the Grylloblattodea.

Muscles And Locomotion

Fig. 3.1 Dissections of (a) a female American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Blattodea Blattidae), and (b) a male black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Orthoptera Gryllidae). The fat body and most of the tracheae have been removed most details of the nervous system are not shown. Fig. 3.1 Dissections of (a) a female American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Blattodea Blattidae), and (b) a male black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Orthoptera Gryllidae). The fat body and most of the tracheae have been removed most details of the nervous system are not shown.

Physical Characteristics

Earwigs are related to crickets, grasshoppers, and stick insects. They are long, slender, flattened insects that come in various shades of brown or black, sometimes with patterns of light brown or yellow. A few species are metallic green. Most earwigs measure between 0.16 to 3.2 inches (4 to 78 millimeters) in length, without the pinchers (PIN-churs), or grasping claws. The head is distinctive and has chewing mouthparts that are directed toward the front. The antennae (an-TEH-nee), or sense organs, are long, thin, and threadlike. The compound eyes, eyes with many lenses, are usually well developed. However, simple eyes, those that have only single lenses, are absent. Most adult earwigs have four wings. When present, the forewings, or front wings, are short, thick, and leathery and cover a pair of tightly folded, fanlike flight wings that are shaped like the human ear. Their long, flexible abdomen ends in a pair of strong pinchers. The pinchers of the adult male are larger and thicker...

The Case for Entomophagy among Dinosaurs

During the entire year, adolescents were on constant lookout for large arthropods. Defoliating insects on ferns, conifers, and angiosperms served as a snack, but hefty wingless walking sticks, jumbo cockroaches, and giant preying mantids provided better meals. Certainly the most abundant of these were cockroaches (color plate 6D) that occurred under rocks, in debris, around piles of dung, on and under dead animals, and scrambling over tree trunks. Their associations with dead animals and dung also made them important vectors of dinosaur parasites such as protozoans and stomach worms.135 Various types of larger orthopterans were also available for consumption and undoubtedly provided excellent meals. These included crickets, katydids, monkey grasshoppers, elcanids, wetas, and mountain crickets or haglids. The latter feed high in the trees at night and Crickets and grasshoppers (color plates 4A, 4B, 8A) made choice dietary morsels throughout the Cretaceous, either plucked from their...

Behavior And Reproduction

Most grasshoppers feed and mate during the day but molt and lay their eggs at night. The majority of katydids and crickets tend to be active at night, especially in the tropics. However, a wasp-mimicking katydid from Central America is active during the day. These katydids are black and orange and strongly resemble the large tarantula hawk wasps. These harmless katydids not only look like wasps, they act like them too. They are Most orthopterans tend to live by themselves, except during the mating season. However, many crickets are often found in small groups. Locusts sometimes form massive swarms made up of hundreds of thousands, even billions, of individuals. Locusts are grasshoppers that show a definite change in their behavior, shape, and vital body functions as they go from living alone to joining other individuals in swarms. Other groups of orthopterans also form swarms. The North American Mormon cricket is actually a large, wingless katydid that regularly forms large groups...

Orthopterans And People

Plagues of crickets and grasshoppers have invaded homes and ravaged crops for centuries. In Africa and Asia locusts are still a serious threat to crops, but the problem has decreased over the years as scientists now have a better understanding of reasons for their population explosions and have developed various control measures. However, once the swarms become airborne, there is little that can be done to stop them. A promising fungal disease in locusts has proven to provide yet another way of controlling them without using dangerous and expensive chemicals. Other species of locusts, Mormon crickets, and some katydids are sometimes serious agricultural pests in the western United States. In many parts of the world orthopterans are important in the human diet and are sometimes considered to be a real treat. Tribal people in southern Africa eat locusts boiled or roasted, and grilled locusts are often consumed in Cambodia. Mole crickets and some armored katydids are also eaten in some...

Rhabdotogryllus caraboides

Physical characteristics Beetle crickets are small, black, shiny, and beetlelike. Males and females have short, thick forewings covering only half of the abdomen. The veins on these wings are made up of many straight, parallel veins. Males lack the ability to produce sound with their wings. Habitat Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter of the lowland and middle elevation rainforests, as well as in termite mounds. Beetle crickets are found in leaf litter of the lowland and middle elevation rainforests, as well as in termite mounds. (Illustration by Bruce Worden. Reproduced by permission.) Beetle crickets and people Beetle crickets are not known to impact people or their activities.

Tachycines asynamorus

Physical characteristics The wingless bodies of greenhouse camel crickets are yellow-brown, spotted, and measure 0.5 to 0.7 inches (13 to 19 millimeters) in length. The legs and antennae are long and slender, giving them the appearance of a long-legged spider. They are very quick and capable of jumping long distances. Females have a long swordlike ovipositor. Greenhouse camel crickets are only active at night and spend their days hidden in crevices and under large objects. They are always found in groups. (Arthur V. Evans. Reproduced by permission.) Greenhouse camel crickets and people They are sometimes a pest in greenhouses, eating young plants. They are a nuisance to people because they are quick, jump unpredictably, and resemble spiders.

The Remaining Endopterygote Orders

As presently constituted, the Vespoidea contains 10 families, though the vast majority of the approximately 24,000 described species (including 2000 in North America) fall into five large groups. The SCOLIIDAE (digging wasps) (Figure 10.29A) form a small but distinctive family (300 species) of large, hairy wasps with a cosmopolitan distribution. The female burrows into soil, rotting wood, etc., and locates a beetle larva, usually a scarabaeid, which she paralyzes, then lays an egg on it. In some species the female builds a special cell around the host larva. Female TIPHIIDAE (1500 species worldwide) also attack mainly scarabaeid larvae, though some species search out larvae of tiger beetles, cerambycids, solitary and social bees and wasps, and mole crickets. Females of about half of the species are wingless and are either transported to flowers by males, or fed by males on nectar or honeydew. MUTILLIDAE (velvet ants) (Figure 10.29B) form a large, cosmopolitan family (5000 species) of...

Songs And Communication

FIGURE 4 Drawings from audiospectrographs of the songs of 7 of the 17 known species of Western Australian desert crickets in the genus Eurygryllodes. Top to bottom the species are warrilla (a), warrilla (b), warrami, wirangis, yoothapina, buntinus, and diminutus. E. warrilla (a) and (b) have not yet been treated as different species because too little is known about them, and the available specimens have not been distinguished morphologically (from Otte and Alexander, 1983, p. 81). FIGURE 4 Drawings from audiospectrographs of the songs of 7 of the 17 known species of Western Australian desert crickets in the genus Eurygryllodes. Top to bottom the species are warrilla (a), warrilla (b), warrami, wirangis, yoothapina, buntinus, and diminutus. E. warrilla (a) and (b) have not yet been treated as different species because too little is known about them, and the available specimens have not been distinguished morphologically (from Otte and Alexander, 1983, p. 81). FIGURE 5 Teeth on the...

Historical Events Mediated By Insects

Insects have also served as important determinants in the fates of human societies and economies throughout human history. The survival of the Israelites during their extended journey through the Sinai Desert was apparently made possible by insects. The manna that they gathered, ate, and survived upon was most likely the excretions of scale insects. If not for the arrival and help of divinely inspired seagulls, a plague of mormon crickets in 1848 may have ruined the crops and doomed the Mormons soon after their arrival in their new home in Utah. The silk trade was central to the economy of the Chinese Empire as was cochineal to the Aztecs of central Mexico. This is also true on a smaller scale for producers of honey and shellac, and for the thriving modern-day trade in insects sold for scientific, educational, and hobbyist uses.

Insect Body Plans And Developmental Programs

The majority of insects are winged and have either partial or complete metamorphosis. The Hemimetabola, such as grasshoppers and crickets, emerge from the egg formed as small, immature versions of the adult and are called nymphs. They lack wings and functional reproductive organs. After a series of molts, the number usually constant from one generation to another, nymphs pass directly to the winged, reproductive adult stage in a single step. This mode of development is referred to as incomplete metamorphosis. The more advanced insect orders, including moths, beetles, flies, and wasps, develop as vermiform (wormlike) larvae during the immature stages. The complete metamorphosis of these groups is a two-step process in which a sessile, nonfeeding pupal stage is intermediate between larva and adult. The pupal stage allows for a complete change in body form from larva to winged, hexapod adult. This total transformation of body form during complete metamorphosis requires a high degree of...

Aerial yellowjacket Dolichovespula arenaria Fig 913f

Workers are 11-13 mm long and black with yellow markings the yellow genal band behind the eye is continuous, but sometimes deeply notched. The yellow band on gaster segment 1 and 2 is interrupted medially. Nests may be in shrubs or bushes, and in the tops of trees, but this species will readily nest on structures. Nests may be in the ground, and workers excavate the surrounding soil to expand the nest. Nests are initiated from April to June, colonies usually peak in mid-summer, and the nest declines by September-October. Variations occur with geographic region, and from year to year. In southern California, nest construction begins in March and many colonies are in decline by June and July in mid-Atlantic states, colonies may be mature and producing reproductives by early July. Mature nest size is variable by region and year, and ranges from 644 to 4290 cells, and there may be as many as seven combs. Workers usually forage for only live prey, which includes grasshoppers, tree...

Box 41 Aural location of host by a parasitoid fly

Parasitoid insects track down hosts, upon which their immature development depends, using predominantly chemical and visual cues (section 13.1). Locating a host from afar by orientation towards a sound that is specific for that host is rather unusual behavior. Although close-up low-frequency air movements produced by prospective hosts can be detected, for example by fleas and some blood-feeding flies (section 4.1.3), host location by distant sound is developed best in flies of the tribe Ormiini (Diptera Tachinidae). The hosts are male crickets, for example of the genus Gryllus, and katydids, whose mate-attracting songs (chirps) range in frequency from 2 to 7 kHz. Under the cover of darkness, the female Ormia locates the calling host insect, on or near which she deposits first-instar larvae (larviposits). The larvae burrow into the host, in which they develop by eating selected tissues for 7-10 days, after which the third-instar larvae emerge from the dying host and pupariate in the...

Box 44 Biological clocks

The circadian pacemaker (oscillator) that controls the rhythm is located in the brain it is not an external photoperiod receptor. Experimental evidence shows that in cockroaches, beetles, and crickets a pacemaker lies in the optic lobes, whereas in some silkworms it lies in the cerebral lobes of the brain. In the well-studied Drosophila, a major oscillator site appears to be located between the lateral protocerebellum and the medulla of the optic lobe. However, visualization of the sites of period gene activity is not localized, and there is increasing evidence of multiple pacemaker centers located throughout the tissues. Whether they communicate with each other or run independently is not yet clear.

Bringing The Sexes Together

Lights of fireflies, the singing of crickets, and cacophony of cicadas are spectacular examples. However, there is a wealth of less ostentatious behavior, of equal significance in bringing the sexes together and signaling readiness to mate to other members of the species. All signals are species-specific, serving to attract members of the opposite sex of the same species, but abuse of these communication systems can take place, as when females of one predatory species of firefly lure males of another species to their death by emulating the flashing signal of that species.

Orthoptera Phasmatodea

Members of this order include grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids. They are primarily plant feeders and distributed in all zoogeographic regions. They are characterized by having biting-chewing mouthparts, usually well-developed wings, with the fore wings enlarged or thickened some are brachypterous, and some apterous. The body is elongate and the antennae are usually long. Development is gradual the nymph stages resemble adults except for wings, when present. Egg and nymph stages survive dry seasons or overwinter. Pest status is limited to a few domestic and peridomestic species in the urban environment. The house cricket, Acheta domestica, is the only species that occupies and reproduces indoors. However, other crickets frequently utilize household sites for harborage and foraging, or they are attracted to lights at night. The house cricket may damage materials, but other species are only a nuisance. Large numbers of field crickets can be a nuisance. In late summer large numbers...

Rhopalosomatid Waspsnot illus

Two very rare species occur in the East. The larger has normal wings and resembles ichneumons in the genus Ophion, but the abdomen is not laterally flattened, the antennae contain only 12 or 13 segments, the trochanters are 1-segmented, and there is only 1 recurrent vein in the front wing. The smaller species (about 6 mm.) has very short and padlike wings. Larvae are parasites of crickets.

Insects as Human Food

Aboriginal people of the Great Basin region in the southwestern United States traditionally spent much time and effort harvesting a variety of insects, principally crickets, grasshoppers, shore flies (Ephydridae) (especially the pupae), caterpillars, and ants (adults and pupae) though bees, wasps, stoneflies, aphids, lice, and beetles were also consumed on an opportunistic basis. Some of the insects were eaten raw though most were baked or roasted prior to being consumed further, large quantities, especially of grasshoppers and crickets, were dried and ground to produce a flour that was stored for winter use (Sutton, 1988).

Chaoborus Edulis Spp In Lake Nyasa

Jelly grubs (Limacodidae) 332 Jerusalem crickets (Stenopelmatus spp.) morphology 355 development355 common name 355 jewel beetles (Buprestidae) 77 jigger (Tunga penetrans) 379 jumping spiders (Salticidae) 415 June beetles (Phyllophaga spp.) 119 juvenile hormones 24 king cricket (Henicus monstrosus) 351 king crickets (Anostostomatidae) 351

Diversity In Genitalic Morphology

Aedeagus Female Organ

Another example is the long spermathecal tube of some female crickets (Gryllinae), fleas (Ceratophyllinae), flies (e.g. Tephritidae), and beetles (e.g. Chrysomelidae), which corresponds to a long spermatophore tube in the male, suggesting an evolutionary contest over control of sperm placement in the spermatheca. In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Chrysomelidae Bruchinae) spines on the male's intromittent organ wound the genital tract of the female during copulation either to reduce remating and or increase female oviposition rate, both of which would increase his fertilization success. The female responds by kicking to dislodge the male, thus shortening copulation time, reducing genital damage and presumably maintaining some control over fertilization. It is also possible that traumatic insemination (known in Cimicoidea, including bed bugs Cimex lectularius, and in a few species of Miridae and Nabidae), in which the male inseminates the female via the hemocoel by piercing...

Box 55 Eggtending fathers the giant water bugs

The scales found in the conspicuous ovipositors of crickets and katydids exemplify these variations (Orthoptera Gryllidae and Tettigoniidae). The ovipositor of the field cricket Teleogryllus commodus (Fig. 5.12) possesses overlapping plate-like scales and scattered, short sensilla along the length of the egg canal. These sensilla may provide information on the position of the egg as it moves down the canal, whereas a group of larger sensilla at the apex of each dorsal valve presumably signals that the egg has been expelled. In addition, in T. commodus and some other insects, there are scales on the outer surface of the ovipositor tip, which are orientated in the opposite direction to those on the inner surface. These are thought to assist with penetration of the substrate and holding the ovipositor in position during egg-laying. Fig. 5.12 Tip of the ovipositor of a female of the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus (Orthoptera Gryllidae), split open to reveal the inside surface...

Veterinary Importance

Although serious damage seldom occurs, anemia and slow growth may result. Several cockroach-associated nematodes occur in Europe and North America. The esophageal worms Pbysaloptem vara and P. praeputialis are the most widespread species in the United States. They develop in the German cockroach, field crickets, and several species of beedes.

Mounting and Preserving Insects

Most insects are pinned vertically through the thorax a few are pinned sideways. Beetles and hoppers are pinned through the front part of the right wing, at a point where the pin on emerging from the underside of the body will not damage a leg. Bugs are pinned through the scutellum (p. 33) if it is large enough to take a pin or through the right wing, as for beetles. Grasshoppers and crickets are pinned through the rear edge of the pronotum, just to the right of the midline. A treehopper is pinned through the pronotum just to the right of the midline. Dragonflies and damselflies can be pinned vertically through the thorax with the wings horizontal, but it is better to pin them sideways, left side up, with the wings together above the body, the pin going through the thorax below the wing bases. If the wings are not together when the specimen is removed from the killing jar, place the specimen in an envelope (the wings together above the body) for a day or two until it has dried enough...

Camponotus marginatus decipiens C rasilis Fig 94g

Foraging activity begins in May and ends in September, with the peak in July and August. Foraging is primarily nocturnal and the greatest activity is at 20 00-24 00 hand 24 00-4 00 h. Most of the food returned to the nest is liquid and carried by workers in their crop. Workers are unable to ingest solid particles in excess of 100 j.m, and the majority of water-soluble proteins are imbibed in the field and brought back to the nest as liquids. The most common prey are crickets, grasshoppers,

Box 33 The filter chamber of Hemiptera

Alimentary Canal Insect

Typically the foregut is subdivided into a pharynx, an oesophagus (esophagus), and a crop (food storage area), and in insects that ingest solid food there is often a grinding organ, the proven-triculus (or gizzard). The proventriculus is especially well developed in orthopteroid insects, such as cockroaches, crickets, and termites, in which the epithelium is folded longitudinally to form ridges on which the cuticle is armed with spines or teeth. At the anterior end of the foregut the mouth opens into a preoral cavity bounded by the bases of the mouthparts and often divided into an upper area, or cibarium, and a lower part, or salivarium (Fig. 3.14a). The paired labial or salivary glands vary in size and arrangement from simple elongated tubes to complex branched or lobed structures.

The Rountdheaded Katydids

Commonest SDecies, and one that occurs over most of the United States, is the fork-tailed bush katydid (Scudderia jurcatd). Figure i shows a male and a female, the female m the act of cleaning the pads on one of her hind feet. The katydids are ail very particular about keeping their feet clean, for it is quite essential to have then' adhesive pads always in perfect working order but they are so continually stopping whatever tney may be doing to lick one foot 01 another, like a dog scratching flea.s that it looks more like an ingrown habit with them than a necessarv act of cleanliness. The fork tailed katydid is an unpretentious singer and has only one note, a high-pitched zeep reiterated several tmes in succession. But it does not re peat the series continuously, as most other singers do, and its music is likely to be lost to human ears in the general din from the jazzing bands of crickets Yet occasionally its soft ztep, zeep, zeep may be heard from a near-by bush or from the lower...

Digestive Physiology Overview

Orthoptera Grasshoppers feed mainly on grasses, and their digestive physiology clearly evolved from the neopteran ancestor. Carbohydrate digestion occurs mainly in the crop, under the action of midgut enzymes, whereas protein digestion and final carbohydrate digestion take place at the anterior midgut ceca. The abundant saliva (devoid of significant enzymes) produced by grasshoppers saturate the absorbing sites in the midgut ceca, thus hindering the countercurrent flux of fluid. This probably avoids excessive accumulation of noxious wastes in the ceca, and makes possible the high relative food consumption observed among locusts in their migratory phases. Starving grasshoppers present midgut countercurrent fluxes. Cellulase found in some grasshoppers is believed to facilitate the access of digestive enzymes to the plant cells ingested by the insects by degrading the cellulose framework of cell walls. Crickets are omnivorous or predatory insects with most starch and protein digestion...

Nontympanal Hearing Organs

Some caterpillars can detect the near-field sounds produced by the beating wings of a flying wasp up to distances of 70 cm. Specialized hairs on the dorsal thorax of the caterpillar are displaced in the sound's near field, eliciting an evasive response, such as freezing or dropping from a leaf. Similar particle-displacement-sensitive setae on the cerci of crickets and cockroaches function in predator avoidance and possibly for close-range conspecific communication. from a few minutes to a few hours (Fig. 7B). At present, we know little about how insects detect substrate vibrations. The subgenual organ (a chordotonal just below the knee in many insects) functions as a vibration receptor in some groups (like some crickets and termites), but for most insects, the receptor organs are yet to be identified. Clearly further research is required before we gain a full appreciation of this important form of communication in insects.

Farming Insects For Their Products And Byproducts

Human food One often thinks of insects as human food in a novelty context, like being dared to eat fried mealworms, crickets, or chocolate-covered ants at the county fair. But insects have been a serious source of human nutrition for a very long time. This association substantially waned as urbanization and westernization spread, but in the less developed corners of the globe it continues unabated. Accordingly, about 500 species in some 260 genera and 70 families of insects are used for human food somewhere in the world, especially in central and southern Africa, Asia, Australia, and Latin America. Even in the West, insect foods need not be a novelty. Where they are consumed, insects provide 5.10 of the annual animal protein of indigenous peoples. Some Native American peoples consumed saturniid moth larvae as a main part of their diets. Currently, more than 100 species of insects are sold as human food at local markets in rural Mexico, where they constitute a regular part of the local...

Pandinus imperator

Diet They will hunt almost any animal smaller than themselves. Their food includes crickets, insects, other arachnids, mealworms, and millipedes. They will even catch and kill small mice and lizards. Emperor scorpions seldom run down their prey, preferring instead to ambush unsuspecting insects and other small animals that wander nearby. Digestive chemicals are used to turn their victim's tissues into liquid, which is then sucked into the mouth.

Insect Biodiversity

The described species of insects are distributed unevenly amongst the higher taxonomic groupings called orders (section 1.4). Five major orders stand out for their high species richness, the beetles (Coleoptera), flies (Diptera), wasps, ants, and bees (Hymenoptera), butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera), and the true bugs (Hemiptera). J.B.S. Haldane's jest - that God (evolution) shows an inordinate fondness for beetles -appears to be confirmed since they comprise almost 40 of described insects (more than 350,000 species). The Hymenoptera have nearly 250,000 described species, with the Diptera and Lepidoptera having between 125,000 and 150,000 species, and Hemiptera approaching 95,000. Of the remaining orders of living insects, none exceed the 20,000 described species of the Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, and katydids). Most of the minor orders have from some hundreds to a few thousands of described species. Although an order may be described as minor, this does not mean...

Autotomy

Autotomy is a defensive response to attack involving the amputation or active breaking of a body part along a breakage plane and usually involves loss of a leg. Many invertebrates (e.g., crayfish, daddy-long-legs), including insects such as crickets, grasshoppers, and walkingsticks, and many vertebrates (e.g., salamanders) exhibit this ability. For example, walk-ingsticks (Phasmida) have weakened areas at the trochanter that break under stress, such as when an appendage is grasped by a predator. If the insect is not an adult, regeneration occurs at the next molt. The amputated leg of the walkingstick twitches after being detached, which may divert the predator's atten

Culturing Insects

Insects such as crickets, mealworms (tenebrionid beetle larvae), and bloodworms (midge larvae) are mass-reared commercially for feeding to pets, or as bait for anglers. Further, hobbyists and insect pet owners form an increasing clientele for captive-reared insects such as scarabs and lucanid beetles, mantises, phasmids, and tropical cockroaches, many of which can be bred with ease by children following on-line instructions.

Herbivory

Lianas and epiphytes festooned every layer in the forest. These effectively transformed the canopy into a roof garden where they cJung to the moss-covered branches and peeked through the Jeafy cover. The trunk and Jimbs of trees were draped with swaths of delicate mosses, sheets of liverworts, and veils of filmy ferns. Ropy lianas stretched across and around trunks and Jimbs, binding together every level in the forest and serving as highways for cockroaches and crickets. They intertwined with masses of tangled roots to form a meshwork on the forest floor, and twisted and looped out over the top layers of the canopy. Epiphytes perched in every stratum, weighing down Jimbs, creating dense Juxuriant growth over every avaiJabJe surface, and providing cover for frogs and birds. Even sedges grew in the forks of the trees, while feathery bamboo-Jike grasses flourished in the open areas. At ground JeveJ, a Jitter of discarded leaves, cones, twigs, Jogs, bark, and primitive fruits made an...

Blattodea

Cockroaches are referred to as generalized orthopteroid insects, which classifies them with the true Orthoptera (crickets, katydids, grasshoppers, locusts), Phasmatodea (walkingsticks), Mantodea (praying mantids), Plecoptera (stoneflies), Dermaptera (earwigs), Isoptera (termites), and a few other minor groups. The phylogenetic relationships among all these groups are not firmly established, although several theories exist. The closest relatives of cockroaches are believed to be the mantids, and some modern taxonomists prefer to place these two groups, as well as termites, in the order Dictyoptera. Indications are that termites evolved out of the cockroach stem or that cockroaches and termites both evolved from a common ancestor. One family of cockroaches (Cryptocercidae) and one extant relic species of termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) have certain characteristics in common. Among them are the segmental origin of specific structures in the female reproductive system and that both...

The Head

The mouthparts are formed from appendages of all head segments except the second. In omnivorous insects, such as cockroaches, crickets, and earwigs, the mouthparts are of a biting and chewing type (mandibulate) and resemble the probable basic design of ancestral pterygote insects more closely than the mouthparts of the majority of modern insects. Extreme modifications of basic mouthpart structure, correlated with feeding specializations, occur in most Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and a number of the smaller orders. Here we first discuss basic mandibulate mouthparts, as exemplified by the European earwig, Forficula auricularia (Dermaptera Forficulidae) (Fig. 2.10), and then describe some of the more common modifications associated with more specialized diets.

Adaptations

A bee's body is modified for specific activities. Anatomical and physiological modifications are superimposed upon and integrated into her generalized body plan. For example, the feeding organs of bees contain similar parts as those of other insects, such as crickets, but a bee's mouthparts differ in shape and function in that they form a proboscis for ingesting nectar and pollen. The gut or alimentary canal of a honeybee is specialized for holding honey. Her respiratory system is enlarged accommodating rapid flight. Bee wings enable swift flight, but they can also sustain heavy, rapidly changing loads of nectar, honey and pollen. A bee uses her legs not only for walking. Her legs are shaped for holding on, feeding brood and young bees, for cleaning herself, and are adapted for performing other jobs around the hive, such as carrying pollen. The sting of a worker bee discharges formic acid

The Shield Bearfrs

Rhadophorinae, including the insects known as camel crickets. But these are all wingless, and therefore silent. The chirp of the cricket is prcbably the mcst familiar note of all orthcpteran music. But the only cricket com monly known to the public is the black field crcket, the 'i ely chirper of our yards and gardens. His European cousm, the house cricket, is famous as the cricket on the hearth on account of his fondness for fireside warmth which so stimulates him that he must express his animation m song. This house cricket has been known as Gryllus since the time of the ancient Greeks and Remans, and his name has been made the basis for the name of his family, the Gryllidae, for there are numerous other crickets, some that live in trees, some in shrubbery, some on the ground, and others in the earth of the grasshopper (A), but usually differs from that of the grasshopper m having the basal joint smooth or hairy all around or with only one pad on the under surface In most crickets,...

Dorsal Vessel

Americana) and some other orthopteroid insects (e.g., crickets and mantids) there are paired segmental vessels diverging from the heart laterally. In the cockroach, these vessels are simple sacs of connective tissue and have no inherent musculature, thus providing a simple channel to the lateral aspects of the pericardial sinus in the middle segments of the abdomen. These specialized vessels ensure lateral perfusion of the pericardial sinus in moderate to large insects. Lateral tubes and vessels are not known in small insects.

Figs 35

Le musical or stndulanng organs of the crickets are similar to those of the katydids, be.ng formed from the veins of the basal parts of the front wings. But in the crickets the organs are equally developed on each w.ng, and it looks as if these nsects could play with either wing uppermost, Yet most of them consistently keep the right he front wings of male crickets are usually very broad and have the outer edges turned down in a wide flap that folds over the sides of the body when the wings are cloned. The wings of the females are simpler and usually smaller. The differences between the front w'ngs in the male and the female of one of the tree crickets (Fig- 37) is shown at B and D of Figure 33 The inner half of the wing (or the rear half when the wing is extended) s very large n the male (D) and has only a few veins, which brace or stiffen the wide membranous vibratory area or tympanum. The inner basal part, or anal area, of the male w ng ,s also larger than in the female and...

Mosquitoes

The silvery rays of a bright moon silhouetted a small carnivorous dinosaur moving silently among the stalks of giant reeds bordering the forest. The night air was filled with the croaking of frogs, chirping of tree crickets, and rustling sounds of leaves in the wind. With large eyes adapted to low light intensities, the activities of a rodent-like mammal feasting on seeds in the undergrowth were easy to detect. The dinosaur crouched down and slowly began to stalk the unwary prey. When it heard the bending and snapping reeds, the quarry stopped chewing and immediately darted to the nearest tree. The predator followed in close pursuit and as the mammal began scurrying up the trunk, the dinosaur's grappling claws tore out some of the animal's hairs even as the prey managed to scamper high into the upper branches. The detached hairs drifted down into a blob of resin on the bark of the tree, leaving behind a lasting memento of this drama.

Diagnostic Features

The Orthoptera also include katydids, long-horned and meadow grasshoppers, short-horned grasshoppers and locusts, pigmy locusts, and wetas. Orthoptera are related to stick insects (order Phasmatodea), cockroaches (order Blattodea), and mantids (order Mantodea), all of which lack jumping hind legs. Phasmatodea have three tarsal segments, Blattodea and Mantodea five tarsal segments. Crickets are further classified in the suborder Ensifera, the members of which share jumping hind legs, two pairs of wings (rarely one) or none, either three or four tarsal segments, and thread-like antennae that are longer than the body except in subterranean forms. Crickets all have long thread-like antennae, two slender tactual abdominal cerci, three tarsal segments, and some bulbous sensory setae basally on the insides of the cerci. No other insects share all these features the last is closest to a single defining trait, shared by only certain Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem crickets with four tarsal...

Variation

The smallest crickets are tiny, wingless forms comprising the subfamily Myrmecophilinae (ca. 1 mm) they apparently live and reproduce only in ant nests. The largest are the short-tailed crickets (Brachytrupinae) called bull crickets (ca. 5 cm) they excavate burrows a meter or more deep. Different cricket groups vary from having slender, fragile, whitish or greenish bodies with virtually transparent forewings (tree crickets Oecanthinae, Fig. 1) to heavy-bodied, aggressive brown and black defenders of burrows and territories (field crickets Gryllinae, Fig. 2, short-tailed crickets Bachytrupinae mole crickets Gryllotalpinae). James Thurber said of one grylline, the sturdily built European burrowing field cricket (Gryllus campestris), that it has the aspect of a wrecked Buick.

Habitats

Crickets live in virtually all terrestrial habitats from treetops to a meter or more beneath the ground. Members of multiple subfamilies live in or near treetops and in bushes, grasses, and other herbaceous plants (Oecanthinae, Mogoplistinae, Eneopterinae, Podoscirtinae, Trigonidiinae) (Fig 3) on the soil surface (Nemobiinae, Gryllinae) in caves (Phalangopsinae, Pentacentrinae) and in shallow or deep burrows (Gryllotal- Females of different groups lay eggs in stems or twigs, in wood, under bark, in the ground, or in burrows. Apparently all females in the widely distributed burrowing subfamilies Brachytrupinae (short-tailed crickets, 223 species) and Gryllotalpinae (mole crickets, 76 species) are parental toward their eggs and also toward their juveniles.

Wings And Flight

The forewings of crickets, when present, are typically stiff and leathery the hind wings are membranous and fold fan-like under the forewing when not being used. The hind wings can be miniature nonflying organs (microptery), longer than the forewings (macroptery), or absent. Some macropterous individuals shed their hind wings. The hind wings may also be pulled off and eaten by their bearer or by a female being courted by a macropterous male. Some macropterous crickets, such as the subtropical and tropical American species, Gryllus assimilis, take off, fly, and land so adeptly as to be wasp-like others, such as mole crickets, fly in almost comically ponderous and slow manners, some with their abdomens hanging almost vertically.

Egglaying

Most female crickets inject their eggs into the soil or into plant stems through long, slender ovipositors. The oviposition slashes of tree crickets often seriously damage berry canes and small twigs. Females of the two subterranean subfamilies do not inject their eggs into the soil and have lost the external

Life Histories

In northern (and probably southern) latitudes most crickets overwinter as eggs and mature in late summer. A few burrowers overwinter as partly grown juveniles and mature in early summer. There are 6 to 12 nymphal molts, and the adults usually live 6 to 8 weeks. In latitudes with significant winters, life cycles vary from one generation every 2 years in a mole cricket to two generations each year. Diapause occurs in the overwintering stage. Nondiapausing crickets such as the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) have a generation time of a few weeks, varying with rearing temperature. Diapause also occurs during droughts in some tropical countries. Eggs or adults live through droughts, with rain causing nymphs to hatch and adults to oviposit.

Mating System

The long-range female-attracting songs and long tactual cerci of crickets are components of a unique mating system, some aspects of which evidently trace to the earliest instances of copulation in the insect line and help explain changes leading to the current major groups of insects. Thus, none of the primitively wingless modern insects copulate, while all winged and secondarily wingless insects do, the majority with the male mounting the female and in some way holding or forcing her. In primitively wingless insects, however, a sac or bulb containing the sperm (a spermatophore) is transferred indirectly to the female without direct copulation. Like crickets, some of these particular primitively wingless insects possess prominent tactual cerci (e.g., Thysanura), used to guide the female during spermatophore transfer, as also in cockroaches and mayflies. In all insect groups of ancient origin that have prominent tactual cerci, transfer of the spermatophore is a luring act in which the...

The Thorax

Pterothoracic Notum Insects

Generally the femur and tibia are the longest leg segments but variations in the lengths and robustness of each segment relate to their functions. For example, walking (gressorial) and running (cursorial) insects usually have well-developed femora and tibiae on all legs, whereas jumping (saltatorial) insects such as grasshoppers have disproportionately developed hind femora and tibiae. In aquatic beetles (Coleoptera) and bugs (Hemiptera), the tibiae and or tarsi of one or more pairs of legs usually are modified for swimming (natatorial) with fringes of long, slender hairs. Many ground-dwelling insects, such as mole crickets (Ortho-ptera Gryllotalpidae), nymphal cicadas (Hemiptera Cicadidae), and scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), have the tibiae of the fore legs enlarged and modified for digging (fossorial) (Fig. 9.2), whereas the fore legs of some predatory insects, such as mantispid lacewings (Neuroptera) and mantids (Mantodea), are specialized

Sound Reception

Among Insecta, hearing has evolved independently in at least 12 groups (Michelsen and Larsen, 1985). Though insect hearing organs include a number of common elements, their structural complexity reflects the interaction of three factors the evolutionary history of the group, the size of the insect, and the acoustic features of the insect's environment. For example, the tympanal organs of most moths, which are sensitive only to the sounds emitted by bats preying on them, are relatively simple whereas the tympanal organs of crickets and grasshoppers tend to be complex because they need to distinguish the (equally complex) songs of conspecifics.

Mud dauberwasps

Adults of Chalybion and Sceliphron are 18-30 mm long, and the body may be black, purplish blue, metallic blue, or black with yellow markings. These wasps prey on spiders, grasshoppers, katydids, crickets, and caterpillars. Females build mud nests on the sides of buildings and in protected sites, including in attics and sheds. Cells of mud are constructed until they make a mass 4-8 cm wide. After provisioning each cell with prey and laying an egg, the cells are covered with mud to make a smooth outer surface. Larvae complete development in about 3 weeks and spin a cocoon, but they pupate the following spring. These wasps rarely sting, and do not defend their nest site.

Tiphiidae

These wasps are 6-26 mm long, and the body is black, sometimes black with yellow markings. Males are always winged, but females may be winged or apterous and ant-like in appearance. Most species of tiphiids are solitary, ectoparasites of large soil-dwelling insects. They are known to parasitize larvae of tiger beetles, and various ground-nesting bees and wasps. The majority attack beetle larvae, and show a preference for full-grown individuals. Some common species are parasites of white grubs, including June beetles, Phyllophaga species (Scarabaeidae), and the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica. The single species in the subfamily Diamminae, Dammia bicolor, attacks mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae).

Corpora Allata

Reports of the existence of ecdysones in adult female insects, published in the 1950s, were largely ignored (after all, the molt glands that produce them were known to degenerate at the end of larval life), and it was not until the 1970s that the ovary was shown to be a major producer of these hormones in insects from a variety of orders (e.g., locusts, crickets, termites, mosquitoes and other Diptera, and several Lepidoptera). In some Diptera a clear role for ecdysone in vitellogenesis has been established (Chapter 19, Section 3.1.3) while in locusts the ecdysone largely accumulates in maturing eggs to be used later in the regulation of embryonic molting (Chapter 20, Section 7.2). For other species, its function remains unclear. Evidence from a number of species indicates that the testes may also produce ecdys-teroids. In the moths Lymantria dispar and Heliothis virescens testis ecdysiotropin stimulates the testis sheaths to produce ecdysteroids. In turn these trigger release of...

Sound production

Sound production by stridulation occurs in some species of many orders of insects, but the Orthoptera show most elaboration and diversity. All stridulating orthopterans enhance their sounds using the tegmina (the modified fore wings). The file of katydids and crickets is formed from a basal vein of one or both tegmina, and rasps against a scraper on the other wing. Grasshoppers and locusts (Acrididae) rasp a file on the fore femora against a similar scraper on the tegmen.

Courtship

Courtship may include visual displays, predominantly by males, including movements of adorned parts of the body, such as antennae, eyestalks, and picture wings, and ritualized movements (dancing). Tactile stimulation such as rubbing and stroking often occurs later in courtship, often immediately prior to mating, and may continue during copulation. Antennae, palps, head horns, external genitalia, and legs are used in tactile stimulation. Acoustic courtship and mating recognition systems are common in many insects (e.g. Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Plecoptera). Insects such as crickets, which use long-range calling, may have different calls for use in close-range courtship. Others, such as fruit or vinegar flies (Drosophila), have no long-distance call and sing (by wing vibration) only in close-up courtship. In some predatory insects, including empidid flies and mecopterans, the male courts a prospective mate by offering a prey item as a nuptial gift (Fig. 5.1 Box 5.1).

Stenopelmatidae

These are Jerusalem crickets or sand crickets. They have a large and robust head and body they are usually brown to blackish brown, and have bands on the abdomen. They are found under stones or in loose soil. In the USA they are most common in western and Pacific coast states. There are 16 described species in the USA and Canada, but there may be as many as 60 undescribed species. Although they are found primarily in undisturbed areas, they occur around buildings during warm months. Jerusalem crickets, stenopelmatus fuscus, S. longispina, S. pictus Adults are 30-50 mm long. The head, thorax, and legs are shiny brown or yellowish brown. The abdomen is shiny brown with wide black bands dorsally, and ventrally pale brown. The apex of hind tibiae is ringed with large spines. Eggs are about 3 mm long, oval and yellowish white. They are laid in batches of 15-25 in holes or narrow chambers in soil below the frost line. Females use their head to excavate the holes. Hatching occurs in the fall...

Hormonal Control

In contrast, the occurrence of both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones is firmly established (Phillips, 1983 Spring, 1990 Coast, 1998a, 2001 Gade, 2004). In most species, neurosecretory cells in the brain produce these hormones that are then stored in the corpora cardiaca, though there are many reports of diuresis-modifying factors in extracts from other ganglia in the ventral nerve cord. Almost all identified osmoregulatory hormones are peptides, though in some insects (e.g., Rhodnius, locusts and crickets) serotonin also appears to be an important diuretic factor.

Evolution

The exception, not the rule, for insects, with only 7 of the 25 recognized extant neopteran orders having tympanate species. The Orthoptera (crickets, grasshoppers, and katydids) and the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) boast the largest number of eared species. In two of the most speciose orders, the Diptera (flies and mosquitos) and the Coleoptera (beetles), tympanal ears are rare, and surprisingly, the Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees) are completely atympanate as far as we know. Following is a brief introduction to the major taxonomic groups for which tympanal ears have been identified to date. In the suborder Ensifera crickets (Gryllidae), katydids (Tettigoniidae) the ears occur just below the knee region, on the tibia of the forelegs. Each leg has two eardrums one on each side of the leg (Fig. 3). The tympanal membranes are connected to other sound input sources (the spiracles, contralateral ear) via a system of tracheal tubes and air chambers, which play important roles in...

Function

For humans, the most conspicuous sounds commonly heard from insects are the loud chirps and trills of field crickets, the long raspy choruses of katydids by night, and the intense, shrill-like buzzes and rattles of cicadas by day. These are the mating calls emitted by males in order to attract conspecific females. Sounds used in reproductive interactions function in species recognition, courting, pair maintenance, female mate choice, and male male competition. The hearing organs of crickets, katydids, grasshoppers, mosquitos, and cicadas are used primarily for these purposes and are sharply tuned to the calls of conspecifics. The features of these mating calls have surely been shaped by sexual selection.

Theridiidae

Prey for this spider is any insect or other arthropod that becomes entangled in the small but efficient web. The spider usually remains at the edge of the web, but responds quickly to any vibration of the strands. It usually approaches the trapped prey backwards while extending a strand of viscid silk, first tying down any moving legs or wings viscous droplets ofsilk are ejected from the spinnerets to entangle the prey further. The spider delivers a lethal bite to the prey and it quickly dies. Immediately after the kill, the body fluids of the prey are sucked out by the spider. Once the prey is utilized, all points of attachment between its body and the web are cutand it drops from the web. The amount of food eaten varies with environmental conditions. Records for the life of one L. mactans include 250 house flies, 33 fruit flies (Drosophila), two crickets, and one small spider.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism, the existence of several distinct forms of the same life stage of an organism, though not a common phenomenon in insects, occurs in representatives of several widely different orders. The phases of locusts (Orthoptera) and some caterpillars (Lepidoptera), castes of social insects (Isoptera and Hymenoptera), wing polymorphism in crickets (Orthoptera), aphids and other Hemiptera, and color polymorphism of mimetic butterflies (Lepidoptera) are examples of insect polymorphism. Though these examples refer only to difference of form, it should be appreciated that the physiology, behavior, and ecology of these forms are also different (Applebaum and Heifetz, 1999).

Uropygi

The last three segments of the abdomen are small and annular, forming a pygidium, which bears a long, slender telson from which the name whip-scorpion is derived. There are two glands that open one each side of the anus and discharge a fluid when the animal is disturbed. This fluid has the odor of vinegar (acetic acid), from which the name vinega-roon is derived (from the Spanish word vinegare). These non-poisonous arthropods are nocturnal and prey on insects such as cockroaches, crickets, grasshoppers, termites, and other arthropods. They live primarily in damp habitats in the tropics of the world, although a few species are found in arid regions. The genus Hypoctonus occurs in Malaysia, Typopeltis in Japan and northern China, Thelyphonus in southern Asia and Indonesia, and Mastigoproctus in southern USA and perhaps northern Mexico.

Systematics

Although the various insect groups (taxa), especially the orders, are fairly well defined based on morphological characters, the phylogenetic relationships among insect taxa are a matter of much conjecture, even at the level of orders. For example, the order Strepsiptera is a discrete group that is recognized easily by its parasitoid life style and the adult male having the fore wings modified as balancing organs (Taxobox 23), yet the identity of its close relatives is not obvious. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera) somewhat resemble each other, but this resemblance is superficial and misleading as an indication of relationship. The stoneflies are more closely related to the cockroaches, termites, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, crickets, and their allies than to mayflies. Resemblance may not indicate evolutionary relationships. Similarity may derive from being related, but equally it can arise through homoplasy, meaning convergent or parallel evolution of structures...

Adaptive Radiation

Founder effects, behavioral isolation, ecological isolation, and host-associated isolation have all been implicated in the process of adaptive radiation. For insects, particularly noted examples include Drosophila flies, which are well known for their diversity of mating behaviors, as well as lineages of crickets that have diversified in song repertoire, sapfeeding planthoppers that have proliferated by switching between plant hosts, and beetles that have formed new species on different substrates. Diversification may follow a predictable pattern, at least in some groups for example, among Tetragnatha spiders, similar ecological sets of species have evolved over and over again on each of the different Hawaiian Islands.

Phylogenetics

The unraveling of evolutionary history, phylogenet-ics, is a stimulating and contentious area of biology, particularly for the insects. Although the various groups (taxa), especially the orders, are fairly well defined, the phylogenetic relationships among insect taxa are a matter of much conjecture, even at the level of orders. For example, the order Strepsiptera is a discrete group that is recognized easily by having the fore wings modified as balancing organs, yet the identity of its close relatives is not obvious. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) and mayflies (Ephemeroptera) somewhat resemble each other, but this resemblance is superficial and misleading as an indication of relationship. The stoneflies are more closely related to the orthopteroids (cockroaches, termites, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, crickets, and their allies) than to mayflies. Resemblance may not indicate evolutionary relationships. Similarity may derive from being related, but equally it can arise through homoplasy,...

The True Katydid

When we listen to insects singing, the question alwavs arises of why they sing, and we might as well admit that we do not know what motive impels them It is probably an nstinct with males to use their stndulating organs, but in many cases the tones emitted are clearly modified by the physical or emotional state of the player. The music seems in seme way to be connected with the mating of the sexes, and the usual idea is that the sounds are attractive to the females. With many of the crickets, however, the real attraction that the male has for the female is a liquid exuded on his back, the song apparently being a mere ad vertisement of his wares. In any case the ecstacies of love and passion asenbed to male insects in connection with their music are probably more fanciful than real. The subject is an enchanted field wherein the scientist has most often weakened and wandered from the narrow path of observed facts, and where he has mdulged in a freedom of imagination permissible to a...

Phenols

Phenols and quinones are both found widely among insects, but so far have been found mainly in Coleoptera, Orthoptera (crickets and locusts), Isoptera (termites) and Dictyoptera (cockroaches). Phenols provide protection upwards against predators and downwards against microorganisms. They can be formed through a variety of biosynthetic routes. Some phenols have already been encountered among acetogenins (Chapter 4). They can also be formed from phenylpyruvic acid as in the formation of tyrosine from phenylalanine (Figure 8.3). Phenol itself is widely scattered, but not frequently encountered, from millipedes (diplo-pods) and opilionids (daddy-longlegs, or harvestmen) to grasshoppers and beetles. Beetles are the most frequent users of phenols, often mixed with other compounds. o-Cresol and m-cresol are common in beetle defensive glands and -ethylphenol is found in the glands of the cockroach Periplaneta americana and is probably responsible for that insect's characteristic odour. Both...

Orthopterida

ORTHOPTERA THE CRICKETS, KATYDIDS, GRASSHOPPERS, WETAS, AND KIN Most polyneopterous lineages consist of a few thousand species (or much less ), but Orthoptera is the only poly-neopteran order with any sizeable diversity, having around 22,500 described species. The order has attracted the attention of humans since antiquity, developing into a love-hate relationship. On the one hand, orthopterans have been a source of wonderment for their diversity and soothing songs. Images of raphidophorine cave crickets, for example, have even been drawn onto the walls of caves in southern France by Paleolithic people, along with large mammals. Larger orthopterans are eaten by some indigenous peoples. In China, crickets are kept in tiny bamboo cages as pets and signs of good luck, as they have for millennia, and the chirping of woodland and field crickets is considered more enjoyable than that of a songbird (Laufer, 1927). Conversely, swarms of grasshoppers have been scourges to agriculture. strongly...

Caelifera

The superfamily Tridactyloidea contains three families, the closely related Tridactylidae and Rhipipterygidae and the relict Cylindrachetidae. These insects superficially resemble true crickets and mole crickets, and they also tend to be small and frequently gregarious. The tridactylids and rhipiptery-gids are most closely related, both occurring in the tropics or subtropics except for a few tridactylids that extend into temperate habitats. The family Cylindrachetidae consists of nine peculiar species commonly known as sand gropers. Cylindra-chetids are confined to the Southern Hemisphere, living in subterranean galleries in southern South America (Patagonia), Australia, and New Guinea. These insects are extremely reduced, having minute eyes, no vestiges of wings, and a soft, fleshy abdomen (Figure 14.31). The mid and hind legs are very short, and the forelegs are remarkably convergent with those of gryllotalpids. Because they do not live above ground, their dispersal ability must be...

Ensifera

Schizodactylidae

Cricket (Gryllidae) from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. The earliest crickets occur in the Late Triassic by the time of the Santana Formation in Brazil 120 mya, they were diverse and abundant. AMNH body length 19 mm. 7.30. Cricket (Gryllidae) from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil. The earliest crickets occur in the Late Triassic by the time of the Santana Formation in Brazil 120 mya, they were diverse and abundant. AMNH body length 19 mm. in New Zealand and Australia. Some stenopelmatoids have an imposing habitus and include the Jerusalem crickets, wetas, cave crickets, and king crickets. Most species are flightless and nocturnal, scavenging for arthropod remains, but they can be omnivorous or even predatory. The former family Gryllacrididae is now considered a subfamily of the Stenopelmatidae, as are the Schizodactylidae in some classifications (e.g., Gorochov, 2001). Gryllacridids are best known for the raphidophorines, the so-called camel crickets, which are named for the...

Rhaphidophoridae

Legs are large they are primarily terrestrial. The members of this family are nocturnal, and they are predominantly carnivorous. The peridomestic species with pest status include cave crickets and camel crickets. Cave crickets, camel crickets, stone crickets, Ceuthophilus maculatus, C. pallidus, C. californicus, and C. pacificus (Fig. 13.1d) Adults are 13-39 mm long and wingless. The body is light brown to dark brown, and many species have a mottled color pattern on the thorax, abdomen, and legs. Antennae are threadlike and longer than the body. Hind legs are long, and the femora are enlarged. Nymphs have a color pattern similar to the adults the immature females lack an ovipositor. Camel crickets do not chirp. New Zealand cave crickets, Pachyrhamma fascifer, P. acanthocera Adults are 44-50 mm long, excluding the antennae, which are extremely long (in P. acanthocera more than 550 segments). They occur in tunnels and other dark and moist peridomestic locations.

Insects and Tools

Sound baffle use by Oecanthus crickets. Only 5 to 10 of the above items have met with a general acceptance of entomologists. Some reject, others accept some of the other activities (1 to 4 and 11 and 12) as a case of tool making and using. Let us explain what sound baffle means. The male of some crickets (Oecanthus) are able to increase the effectiveness of their calling sound by gnawing a small hole in a leaf and orientating it in front of their body (Beck, 1980). The leaf acts as a baffle. Structure building is more questionable in its interpretation as tool making. Perhaps, some justification for regarding nest making as a case of tool making lies in the fact that many insect species fashion structures (burrows, nests) to serve diverse functions (thermoregulation, accoustics, etc). That seems more of an instinctive behaviour than guided by intelligence. Soil or stone dropping has been observed among several ants. Dolichoderine ants ( onomyrma bicolor), for instance, surround...

Structure of the gut

Cicada Foregut Valve

The proventriculus is especially well developed in orthopteroid insects, such as cockroaches, crickets, and termites, in which the epithelium is folded longitudinally to form ridges on which the cuticle is armed with spines or teeth. At the anterior end of the foregut the mouth opens into a preoral cavity bounded by the bases of the mouthparts and often divided into an upper area, or cibarium, and a lower part, or salivarium (Fig. 3.14a). The paired labial or salivary glands vary in size and arrangement from simple elongated tubes to complex branched or lobed structures.

Ampulicid Wasp

Sand-loving Wasps, Subfamily Larrinae. Most species are brownish and 10-20 mm. Middle tibiae with 1 apical spur. FW with 3 submarginal cells, 3rd often oblique, and marginal vein usually continuing a way beyond tip of marginal cell. Mandibles generally notched on outer margin. Lateral ocelli often distorted, not round. These wasps nest in sandy areas and provision their nests with grasshoppers or crickets.

Gryllotalpidae

Mole crickets are brown to brownish black, and the body is usually covered with fine setae. Antennae are short and the front legs are very broad and have large spines (dactyls) for digging. These insects burrow in moist soil, usually along the edge of ponds and streams they tunnel 150-200 mm below the surface. The males stridulate. They are capable flyers, and are attracted to bright outdoor lights at night. Mole crickets are pests of commercial turfgrass because they tunnel in soil, expose grass roots, and feed on grass and other plants. At night, mole crickets leave their underground tunnels to bite off stems and leaves of plants, which are dragged into their burrow to be eaten. Roots are eaten at any time from within the tunnels. In areas of severe damage, the surface 20-25 cm ofsoil is honeycombed with numerous galleries. Three species of mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus, S. borellii, and S. albibreviatus, were introduced into southern USA from South America. Scapteriscus...

Parasitic Worms

Rhabdiasidae

Because of their large size, stomach worms (ascarids) are readily noticed when they appear in stool samples (fig. 32). They can easily reach a foot in length, and when abundant, may cause intestinal blockage and death. Highly resistant eggs that can withstand heat and drought are the key to their success. The eggs can even become airborne, so just taking a deep breath can begin the infection process. Stomach worms currently parasitize birds and reptiles, including lizards, chameleons, and monitors,247 and there is evidence that chameleons can acquire the parasites just by eating contaminated mosquitoes.248 A few lizards acquire the worms by ingesting ants,249 and if lizards are scarce, the nema-todes are able to complete their development in the ants. Intermediate hosts for bird ascarids include crickets, beetles and ear-wigs,173 all groups that occurred throughout the Cretaceous. We know that dinosaurs were parasitized by stomach worms,135 but what would their symptoms have been...

Anostostomatidae

The wetas and king crickets are now grouped in this family. This family is represented by species from almost all parts of the world, and it is especially diverse in the southern hemisphere. These are large orthopterans, which live in humid forested habitats. Suburbanization in some regions of the world has increased their access to peridomestic habitats.

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