Swt

Abbreviations, 185 Acanthoscelides obtectus, 45, 3.25 ACP, see acyl carrier protein Acetic acid, 18, 42, 57-58, 64, 85,

106, 130, 2.13, 4.1 Acetogenins, 57-68, 129, 130, 131, 1.1, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7 from butyric acid, 62-63,4.11,4.12 from propionic acid, 60-63, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11 Acetylcoenzyme A, see Coenzyme A

thioacetate Acetylenase, 34 Acetylenic acids, 171,10.18 Actinidine, 92, 6.12 Active site, 10, 11, 12, 14, 108 Acyl carrier protein, 29, 31, 60, 3.5 Adalia beetles, 47 Adalia punctata, 47 Adaline, 47, 3.28 Adalinine, 47, 3.28 S-Adenosyl homocysteine, 19, 76, 2.16

S-Adenosyl methionine, 19, 76, 102,

110, 145, 156, 2.16 Adrenalin, 127, 8.8 Adynerin, 162,10.2 Aedes aegyptii, 102 Aenictus rotundatus, 94, 126 Agelenopsis aperta, 152 Aglaostigma sandflies, 163 Agmatine, 156, 9.20

Agroporus alutacea, 131,8.13 Albolic acid, 107, 7.4 Albolineol, 107, 7.4 Alcohol dehydrogenase, 25, 61 Alcohol oxidation, 15-16, 2.9 Aldolase, 22

Aldol condensation, 63, 85, 4.13, 6.2 Aleuritic acid, 98, 6.22 Alkaloids, 47, 128-129, 143-154,1.1 biosynthesis, 145,164, 9.3, 9.4,

10.4 bitterness, 166 of insects, 145-154 of plants, 143-145, 9.1 metabolized and sequestered,

163-166 precursors, 144, 9.2 pyrrolizidines, 164—166,10.4-10.6 toxicity, 143, 149, 166, 174-175 veratrum, 163,10.3 Alkane oxidation, 12 Alkenes double bond position, 40, 82, 3.19, 5.12

oxidation, 13, 41, 50 Alkylpiperidines, 146, 9.5, 9.6 Alkylpyrazines, 152-153, 162, 9.15, 10.1

Alkylpyrrolidines, 147, 9.7, 9.8 Allelochemicals def., 4 Allenes, 45, 172, 3.25,10.18 Allomone def., 2, 4 Alydus eurinus, 37, 3.14

Amblyomma americanum, 129, Plate 14

Amblyomma maculatum, 129 Amblyomma variegatum, 130 /»-Aminobenzoic acid, 126, 8.5 5-Aminolaevulinic acid, 138, 8.20 Amitermes, 53, 97, 3.37 Ammonia, 20, 3.26 Amyrin, 113, 7.13 Anabasine, 145, 9.4 Ancistrodial, 97, 6.20 Ancistrofuran, 97, 6.20 Ancistrotermes cavithorax, 97 Ancistrotermes pakistanicus, 3.31 Anisomorpha buprestoides, 93 Anisomorphal, 6.12 Anomala cuprea, 45, 3.25 Anteiso-acids, 36, 37, 39, 3.12, 3.17 Anthocyanins, 154, 9.17 Anthonomus grandis, 89, Plate 6, 6.7 Anthranilic acid, 125, 126, 150, 8.5 Ants, 21, 51-52, 57, 63-64, 91, 98,

105, 126, 144, 146-148, 2.19, 9.8 Aphaenogaster cockerelli, 125 Aphaenogaster rudis, 145, 9.4 Aphidoidea (aphids), 46, 96, 134 Aphinin, 135, 8.17 Aphins, 134-135, 8.17 Aphis fabae, 135 Aphis jacobaeae, 165 Aphis neri, 135, 162, Plate 7, 8.18 Apis mellif era, 50-51, 59, 114 Nasanov attractant, 91 queen substance, 50, 3.32 sex attractant, 50 venom, 127, 128 Apterygota, 8

Arachidonic acid, 35-36, 3.10, 3.11 Arachnida, 62 Arctia caja, 128, Plate 11 Argyrotaenia velutinana, 42, 3.21 Aromatic compounds, 6, 121-132 amines, 127-129, 8.9 pheromones, 123, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5 Arthropods, 7, 8, 102, 114

Asparagine, 24, 168, 2.21,10.10 Aspartic acid, 155, 9.19 Aspidiotus nerii, 162 Asymmetric induction, 24-26, 2.23 Atrax robus tus, 151 At ta cephalotes, 61 At ta texana, 61

Autoradiography, whole-body, 72 B

Bactrocera dorsalis, 171,10.14,10.16

Becquerel unit, 70

Bees bumblebees, 104, 105 colletine, 54-55 halictine, 54

honeybees, see Apis mellifera Nomada, 96 solitary, 65

stingless, 94, 104, 105, 107 Biacetyl, 135 Bilins, 138, 8.20 Bilirubin, 138, 8.20 Biliverdin, 138, 8.20 Biopterin, 137, 8.19 Biosynthesis, def., 1 analytical aspects, 82 compounds of mixed pathway,

154-158 de novo, 90, 93 dynamic equilibrium, 5 in plants, 6, 40, 87-88, 110, 115, 121-123, 143-145, 154, 158, 161, 164, 166, 169, 6.6, 9.17, 10.12

sequence of events, 72 site of, 69, 71 Blatta germanica, 48, 84, 111, 145, 7.9

Blattodea (cockroaches), 48, 102,

130, 131 Blister beetles, see Coleoptera Bombykol, 9, 44, 83-84, 3.23

Bombyx mori, 9, 44, 140, Plate 2 Brevicomin, 90, 6.10 Brood cells, 55 Bruchus pisorum, 56 Bugs, see Hemiptera c

13C-2H coupling, 77, 5.9 13C-13C coupling, 74, 80-81, 5.11 13C labelling, 70, 74, 93, 168,10.9 and NMR spectroscopy, 77, 78, 5.9, 5.11

14C labelling, 40-41,46,65,71,73-74, 93, 106, 112, 113, 125, 127, 129, 145, 146, 149, 155, 157, 167, 168, 171,3.20, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 7.12, 8.6, 9.3, 9.22,10.9 36C1 labelling, 130 Caddis flies, see Trichoptera Cadaverine, 144, 152, 9.2 Y-Cadinine, 97, 6.20 Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules, 24-25,2.22 Calliphora stygia, 120 Calotropin, 162,10.1 Campesterol, 110, 7.8 Camponotus clarithorax, 23, 123 Camponotus herculeanus, 4.14 Camponotus inequalis, 4.14 Camponotus ligniperdus, 4.14 Camponotus nearticus, 126 Camponotus rufipes, 64, 4.14 Camponotus silvícola, 64, 4.14 Camponotus ants, 64 Cantharidin, 97-98, 6.21 Caparrapioxide, 97, 6.20 Carabid beetles, 57 Carboxypeptidase, 12-13, 2.3 N-Carboxybiotin, 29, 3.4 Cardiac glycosides, 112-113, 162,

165, 172, 7.12,10.1,10.2 Carminic acid, 134, 8.16 Carotenes, 6,116-118,132,1.1,7.16, 7.17

Carpophilus freemani, 62, 80, 4.11, 4.12

Carvone, 24, 2.21 Caryophylline oxide, 97, 6.20 Cauliognathus lecontei, 171 Cedrene, 98-99, 6.22 Cembrene, 105, 106, 7.2, 7.3 Centipedes (Chilopoda), 64, 128,

129,166 Centipedin, 64, 129, 4.15, 8.10 Cerambycid beetles, 57 Ceroplasteric acid, 107, 7.4 Ceroplastes albolineatus, 107, 7.4 Ceroplastols, 107, 7.4 Chalcogran, 65, 4.17 Chelicerata, 7 Chemical parsimony, 50 Chemochromes, 132 Chilocorine, 148, 9.9 Chilocorus cacti, 148 Chirality, 5, 23-26, 36, 45, 61, 82, 2.22, 3.3 chiral shift reagent, 83 diastereomers, 83 optical rotation, 83 optical rotatory dispersion, 83 circular dichroism, 83 Chironomus flies, 138 Cholesterol, 24, 85, 109-113, 7.7, 7.8 Chorismic acid, 123, 156, 8.1 compounds derived from, 125-127, 156, 8.5 Choristoneura fumiferana, 3.23 Chrysolina carnifex, 116 Chrysolina coerulans, 112-113, 7.12 Chrysomela tremulae, 154—155, 174,

9.19,10.19 Chrysomelidial, 93, 6.12, 6.13 Chrysophtarta beetles, 166 Chrysopterin, 138, 8.19 Cinnabarinic acid, 140, 8.21 Citronellol, 91, 6.1, 6.4 Claisen condensation, 28, 138, 6.2 Claisen rearrangement, 123 Coccinella septempunctata, 47, 162,

165, Plate 3 Coccinella undecempunctata, 162,175

Coccinellids (ladybirds), 46-48, 148 Coccinellines, 46^47, 67, 3.26, 3.27 Coccoidea (scale insects and mealy bugs), 107, 133 Cochineal, 134, 8.16 Co-enzyme A, 14, 31, 2.6 thioacetate, 14, 29, 85,1.1, 2.6, 3.3, 6.2 Co-enzymes, 10, 13-21 Cold-hardy insects, 23 Coleoptera (beetles), 4, 8, 45 bark beetles, 65, 89-90 benzaldehyde in, 125 benzoic acid in, 125 blister beetles, 66-67, 97-98 bombardier beetles, 131, 8.12 cantharid beetles, 173 carabid beetles, 21 Chrysolinina, 112-113,7.12 chrysomelids and cucurbitacins,

171,10.17 click beetles, 104 defensive secretions, 45-48, 91 lampyrid (fireflies), 173,10.18 leaf beetles, 93-94 luciferinin, 157 mandelonitrile in, 167 meloid beetles, 97, Plate 10 phenols in, 129

pheromones, 45, 54, 3.25, 3.38 quinones in, 130 sequestering plant toxins, 161 water beetles, 111, 171 Collembola (springtails), 130 Communication chemicals, 4 Coniferyl alcohol, 125, 171, 8.2, 10.15

Coniine, 143, 145, 9.1, 9.3 Convergine, 47, 3.26 Corpus allatum, 101 Cotinine, 145, 174, 9.4 Crematofuran, 105, 7.2 Crematogaster ants, 51-52, 105 Crematogaster brevispinosus, 105, 7.2 Crematogaster deformis, 129, 8.10

Crematogaster scutellaris, 3.34 Crustacea, 7, 102, 115, 7.14 Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, 47 Cryptolestes beetles, 3.38 Cryptolestes ferrugineus, 95, 3.38, 6.19

Cucujolides, 95-96, 6.19 Cucurbitacins, 171,10.17 Cupiennius salei, 52 Curie unit, 70

Cuticular hydrocarbons, 37^40, 84 Cyanoalanine, 168,10.10 Cyanogenic glucosides, 166-169,

10.7-10.10 Cybister limbatus, 112 Cycasin, 169,10.11 Cycloartenol, 110 Cysteine, 157, 9.22 Cytochromes, 33, 41, 51, 2.5 cytochrome P450, 13, 38,51, 102, 109, 114, 151, 164

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