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5.5 Analytical Aspects 82

5.6 Chirality 82 Background and Further Reading 83 Questions 84

Chapter 6 Terpenes 85

6.1 Monoterpene Biosynthesis 85 6.1.1 The Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway 87

6.2 Monoterpene Pheromones 89

6.3 Monoterpene Defensive Compounds 91

6.3.1 Iridoids 91

6.3.2 Degraded Terpenes 94

6.4 Sesquiterpenes 94

6.4.1 Sesquiterpene Pheromones 96

6.4.2 Cantharidin 97

6.4.3 Lac Insects 98

6.5 Homosesquiterpenes 99

6.6 Juvenile Hormone 101 Background and Further Reading 102 Questions 103

Chapter 7 Higher Terpenes and Steroids 104

7.1 Diterpenes 104 7.1.1 Termites 105

7.2 Sesterterpenes 107

7.3 Triterpenes and Steroids 108

7.3.1 Sterols in Insects 111

7.3.2 Saponins from Triterpenes 113

7.4 Insect Moulting Hormone - Ecdysteroids 114

7.5 Tetraterpenes 116 Background and Further Reading 119 Questions 119

Chapter 8 Aromatic Compounds 121

8.1 Aromatic Compounds in Nature 121

8.2 The Shikimic Acid Pathway 121

8.3 Phenyl-C3 Compounds 123

8.3.1 Aromatic Pheromones 123

8.3.2 Compounds from Chorismic Acid 125

8.4 Aromatic Amines 127

8.4.1 Adrenaline Group 127

8.4.2 Serotonin Group 128

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