L

Laccaic acids, 134, 8.16 Laccifera lacca, 98 Laccijalaric acid, 98, 6.22 Lac insects, 98-99, 134 Lactic acid, 16-18, 22, 2.12 Lactones, 4.14 macrocyclic, 53-55, 96, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 6.19 Ladybirds, see coccinellids Lanosterol, 109, 7.6, 7.7 Lasioderma sericorne, 144, 174 Lasius fuliginosus, 4.14 Lasius niger, 64, 4.14 Lepidoptera, 4, 8, 40, 117, 136, 144, 158, 161, 171,3.18 cardiac glycosides in, 162,10.1 copulating pheromones, 125 cyanogenesis, 167, 168,10.9 and cycasin, 169 juvenile hormone, 101 pigments, 137, 138, 8.20 pyrrolizidine alkaloids in,

164-165,10.4 sequestering plant toxins, 121 sex pheromones, 41^5 Leptinotarsa beetles, 113 Leptoglossus bugs, 125 Leptothorax acervorum, 147,9.8 Leptothorax muscorum, 147, 9.8 Leucine, 52, 148, 153 Leucopterin, 136, 8.19 Limonene, 6.1, 6.4 Linalool, 6.1, 6.4 Linalyl pyrophosphate, 89, 6.4

Linepithema humile, 54, 91, 3.39 Linoleic acid, 35, 49, 3.10, 3.31 Linolenic acid, 35, 44, 66, 158, 3.10,

3.26, 4.17 Limonene, 24 Linamirin, 167,10.9,10.10 Linamirinase, 168 Linyphia triangularis, 52 Lipoic acid, 18, 2.14 Lipophorin, 38, 49 Loganin, 93, 6.12 Lotaustralin, 167,10.9 Lucibufagins, 157, 173,10.18 Luciferin, 157, 9.22, 9.23 Luciferase, 157 Lutzomyia longipalpis, 100 Lymantria dispar, 3.23 Lysine, 144, 9.2 Lysozyme, 10-12, 2.1, 2.2

Macrosiphon liriodendri, 118, 7.17 Macrosiphon rosae, 135 Macrotermitinae, 49 Makisterone A, 114, 7.14 Malacosoma moths (tent caterpillars), 111, 7.9 Malonyl CoA, 29, 85, 3.4, 3.5, 6.2 Mamestra configurata, 124 Mandelonitrile, 166-167,10.7,10.8 Manduca sexta, 143, 174-175, Plate 15

Manica rubida, 67, 99 Mannich reaction, 47, 3.28 Marginalin, 141 Mass spectrometry for heavy isotope labelling, 64, 75, 76, 80, 82, 93, 125, 150, 5.7, 5.8 Mating disruption, 4, 43 Megalomyrmex ants, 147 Melanargia galanthea, 154 Melanin, 132-133, 138,8.14 Mellein, 64, 129, 4.3, 4.14 Messor ants, 145 Methacrylic acid, 37, 75, 3.13

Methionine, 148 deuterated, 64 doubly labelled, 74, 5.5

2-Methylbutyric acid, 36,54,164,3.12

3-Methylenepentyl pyrophosphate, 99, 6.23

Methylerythritol phosphate pathway, 6, 87-88, 116, 154, 6.6 Methyl group transfer, 19, 2.16 6-Methyl-6-hepten-2-one, 94, 6.16 Methylmalonyl CoA, 38, 60 Methyl 4-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate, 153, 9.16 Methyl 6-methylsalicylate, 57,

76-77,1.2, 5.8, 5.9 Methyl oxidase, 34 6-Methylpelleterine, 47, 3.28 Mevalonic acid, 69, 85, 87,1.1, 6.2 Mevalonolactone, 87, 93, 106, 112,

6.5, 6.13 Migdolus fryans, 151 Millipedes, see Diplopoda Monomorium ants, 147, 148 Monomorium pharaonis, 99, 105,

148, 9.10 Monoterpenes, 85-94, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.6 biosynthesis, 85-89, 6.2-6.4 defensive compounds, 91-94 pheromones, 89-91 Morpho didius, 132 Morpho rhetenor, 132 Moulting hormone, see also ecdysteroids, 114-116,1.5 Musca domestica, 40, 145 Myrcene, 6.1, 6.8 Myriapoda, 7, 126 Myristic acid, 28, 3.1 Myrmica ants, 99, 6.24 Myrmica rubra, Plate 8 Myrmica scabrinodis, 61 Myrmicaria ants, 150, 9.10, 9.12

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