co-hydroxystearic acid

Figure 3.39 Further examples of insect macrolides, from the ant Linepithema humile, and cell-lining material from the glands of Colletes bees contain mixtures of 18-octadecanolide, 20-eicosanolide and 18-octadec-9-enolide (Figure 3.39) as well as co-hydroxy-fatty acids (which gives the clue to their biosynthesis) and hydrocarbons. These solitary bees line their brood cells with a waxy polymer made from these components.

There are many more pheromone structures derived from fatty acids, but they all arise by chain extension or shortening, double bond introductions, oxidations and reductions as outlined in these examples.

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