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Paederus beetles, 66-67 Palmitic acid, 28, 32, 42, 44, 98, 3.1 Palmitoleic acid, 32, 45, 3.25 Paltothyreus tarsatus, 74 Papilio memnon, 97 Papilio protenor, 97 Paropsis beetles, 166 Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), 117, 3.23 Pederine, 66, 4.18 Periplanata americana, 96, 129, 145 Periplanones, 96-97, 6.20 Pest control, 2, 4, 63, 66, 143 Phaedon amoraciae, 93, 6.13 Phaeomelanin, 133 Pharmacophagy def., 161 Phenols, 129-130, 8.10 Phenylacetic acid, 125, 8.2 Phenylalanine, 121, 123, 125, 127,

137, 144, 148, 167, 8.2,10.8 Phenyl-C3 compounds, 122,

123-125, 154,1.1, 8.2 Phenylpyruvic acid, 123,129, 8.1, 8.2 Pheromones, 2, 4, 94,1.1 aggregation, 54, 62, 65-66, 71, 89,

90, 95, 4.12, 4.17, 6.7, 6.8 alarm, 96-97, 130, 6.20 attractant, 37, 91, 111 blends, 43

and chirality, 82-83, 90 contact, 48 copulating, 125, 165 def., 2

dispersing, 91 hydrocarbon, 40 oviposition deterrent, 154, 9.18 queen, 64, 105 response inhibition, 42-43

sex attractant, 8, 37, 40-45, 50, 52, 65, 89,91, 100, 104, 105, 123, 124, 130, 151,3.12, 3.21-3.25, 3.31 swarm, 3.33

trail, 49-50, 57, 61, 64, 76, 99, 101, 105, 111, 125, 126, 145, 150, 152, 153, 3.31, 4.14, 6.25, 6.26 volatile, 61-65 Philanthus triangulatus, 151 Philanthotoxins, 151,9.14 Phorcabilin, 8.20

Photosynthesis, 16, 75,1.1,1.4, 5.6 Phragmatobia fuliginosa, 44, 3.24 Phratora vitellinae, 174,10.19 Phyllopertha diversa, 151 Phytoecdysteroids, see ecdysteroids Pieris brassicae, 136, 138, 170 Pier is rapae, 136 Pigments of insects, 117-118, 132-140, 7.16, 7.17, 8.14, 8.16-8.21 a-Pinene, 90, 6.8

Pityogenes chalcographus, 65, 4.17 Plagiodial, 94, 6.14 Plant substances metabolized by insects, 35, 44, 53, 89-90, 110-115, 116, 121, 125, 127, 129, 130-131, 132, 154, 158, 161-167, 169, 170, 171-174 Platyphora beetles, 113, 165 Platyphora boucardi, 10.6 Platyphora kollari, 113, 7.13 Plectreurys tristis, 9.20 Plutella xylostella, 170 Polistes dominulus, 137, Plate 16 Polyamines, 151-152, 9.12, 9.14 Polyketides, 57, 78, 121, 131, 145,

154,1.1,4.1-4.4,4.6,4.8,4.9,9.3 Polyketide synthase, 61 type I, 59, 145 type II, 59 type III, 154, 9.17

Polyommatus icarus, 154 Polyphenol oxidase, 132 Polyunsaturated acids, 6, 35, 44 Polyzonamine, 151, 9.13 Polyzonium rosalbum, 151 Ponasterone A, 115, 7.14 Porphobilinogen, 138,8.20 Precoccinelline, 47, 3.26, 3.27 Prephenic acid, 123, 8.1 Prenyl transferase, 87, 94 Primary metabolites, 1, 28 Pro-chiral atoms, 15, 25, 82, 87, 2.9, 2.23-2.25, 3.9, 6.3, 8.1 def., 25

Propionic acid, 37, 38, 48, 60, 62, 64, 99, 130, 3.16, 3.17, 3.30, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10-4.12 Prostaglandins, 35, 3.11 Prothoracotropic hormone, 114 Protoaphins, 134-135, 8.17 Protoporphyrin IX, 138, 2.4, 8.20

Prunasin, 166,10.7 Pterins, 136-138, Plate 17, 8.19 Pterobilin, 138, 8.20 Pterygota, 8

Putresine, 144, 151, 164, 9.2 Pyrearinus termitilluminans, 160 Pyridoxal phosphate, 19-21, 88, 138,

2.17, 2.18,10.10 Pyridoxamine, 20, 123, 2.17 Pyrophosphatase, 87, 101 Pyrrhocoris apterus, 138, Plate 9 Pyrroles, 153

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, see alkaloids Pyrrolizidines, 148, 9.10 Pyruvic acid, 17-18, 22, 88,1.1, 2.12, 2.13, 2.20, 6.6

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