P

CoAS-H

S-CoA S-CoA

Figure 3.3 The essential steps of fatty acid synthesis and degradation. The growing chain in synthesis is attached to acyl carrier protein (ACP) through a thioester. In degradation the shrinking molecule is attached to coenzyme A, also through a thioester. Note that while the fi-hydroxyl is the (K)-enantiomer in the synthesis process, it is the (S)-enantiomer in degradation; and while NADPH is used to reduce the double bond, FAD is used to produce it ch3cooh +

CoA-sv^C;h enzyme

Cs>^(ch2)4cooh

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