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1.10. John Ray's Historia Insectorum (1710) was an influential work not only for summarizing entomological knowledge of its day but also for taxonomic science in general. Photo: AMNH Library.

would produce a natural classification. For Linnaeus, the orders of insects should be defined on the basis of their wing number and a bit of their structure - hence names like Aptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Neuroptera. To his stu dent, J. C. Fabricius, feeding was more important because it provided the sustenance of life; therefore, mouthparts took precedence over the wings. Hardly known is that both Linnaeus and Fabricius relied on the work of Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) for their descriptions and classification of many insects from tropical South America. She studied engraving and painting in Germany and was inspired by the intricacy of insects. Funded by Dutch scientists to study the insects from that colony, she separated from her husband and moved to Suriname with her daughters for two years. It was there that she produced her masterpiece, The Metamorphosis of the Insects of Suriname (1705) (e.g., Figure 1.13).

Fabricius (1745-1808) (Figure 1.14), in fact, was far more observant of insects than was his mentor Linnaeus, who was primarily a botanist. As Fabricius maintained, mouthparts are indeed complex structures that reflect phylogeny, as we elaborate upon throughout this book. Fabricius described 9,776 species of insects (Linnaeus merely about 3,000), and he published a major reference in entomology, Philosophia Entomologica (1778). Most importantly, he recognized that in classifying insects, as for any organisms, at least some groupings should be natural combinations of species: "those whose nourishment and biology are the same, must then belong to the same genus" [Fabricius, 1790, as translated by Tuxen (1967a)]. Besides mouthparts, Fabricius even predicted that genitalia, which are complex in male insects, would provide many important characters, but was himself limited to the

1.11. The Swedish botanist Karl Linnaeus (1707-78), founder of our modern system of binomial nomenclature. Photo: AMNH Library.

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