S

Saddle-back Moth 163 Sagra species 115 Saissetia nigra 100 Saldidae 94 Saldula spccies 94 Salmonfly 58 Salticidae 234 sand flics 139 sand wasps 192 sap beetles 125 Sarcophaga me anuta 151 Sarcophagidae 151 Sarcoptes scabei 226 Sarcoptidae 226 Sathrophy lia rugosa 63 Satumiidae 168 saturniid moths 168 saucer bugs 90 sawflies l imbic id 204 common 206 leaf-rolling 204 pergid 204 stem 203 Sawfly, Rose 203 scabies mites 226 scale insects 100 Scaphidomorphus s pec ic s 119 Scarabacidac 128...

Blind springtails

Most members of this family are slender and pale or white. A few species have cither blue-gray or slightly red coloration. As their common name suggests, the vast majority of blind springtails have no eyes. They do not have a furcula, although some species may have the vestigal remains of one. The body has a small number of thin-walled spots, or pores, on the cuticle of most segments, through which a noxious liquid can be secreted in order to deter predators. LIFE CYCLE Eggs are laid in soil,...

Tubetailed thrips

Members of this family have larger, stouter bodies than most thrips and the abdomen has a tubular, pointed end. Most species arc dark but often have light or mottled wings. When present and folded, the wings overlap each other. LIFE CYCLE Kggs are laid in cracks and crevices. Most species eat fungi, while some feed inside galls, on plants, or in decaying wood. A few cat mites and small insects. The nymphs are usually red or yellowish, feed alongside the adults in groups, and communicate by...

Blister beetles

Also called oil beetles, the adults produce cantharidin, an oily fluid to deter predators that can blister human skin. Most species arc soft, leathery, and black or brown with red or yellow marks. Some arc metallic. Most arc long and parallel-sided a few are oval. The elytra vary in length. LlFF CYCLF Fggs are laid in soil. The mobile, first-stage larvae locate and cat the eggs of grasshoppers or bees. Adults arc herbivorous. Worldwide, except in New Zealand, mainly in warm, dry areas. On...

Whipscorpions

These flattened arachnids arc also known as vinegaroons because of their ability to defend themselves by spraying formic and acetic acids from a pair of glands at the end of their abdomen. The cephalothorax is longer than it is wide. It is covered by a carapace that carries a pair of eyes at the front edge and several eyes on each side. The chelicerac are more like spider fangs than pincers and the abdomen has 12 segments and ends in a whiplike tail section that is quite different from...

Liposcelid booklic

Lhese insects have flat bodies and distinctively swollen femora on their hindlegs. Most liposcelid booklice have no wings, although winged forms do occur. The head has a pair of short antennae and small eyes. LlEE CYCLE The female lice lay their eggs in places such as Icaflitter, crevices in tree hark, and birds' nests. Their nymphs look much like small adults although they have shorter antennae. OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide. In dry leaf litter, under bark, and in nests. Some are found inside...

Alderflies and Dobsonflies

I IK ORDKR MKCATOPTFRA is relatively small. It is divided into 2 families and 300 species. They are the most primitive insects that develop by complete metamorphosis. There are two distinct families the alderflies (Sialidae) and the dobsonflies (Corydalidae). Both families have soft bodies and are drably colored with two pairs of large wings of almost equal size. When the wings are folded, they are held, rooflike, over the body. Weak fliers, species in this order never move far from water....

Netspinning caddisflies

These caddisflies arc drably colored with either hairy or clear wings. There are wartlike projections on the pronotum. I > 111. CYCLE Eggs are laid in water. The stout larvae live near a cup-shaped net that they spin between stones or other objects. The net catches small organisms, algae, and debris, which the larvae cat. Some larvae are predacious. Occi JRRENC I Worldwide. Common along streams and rivers. REMARK Different species make nets with varying mesh sizes to suit their preferred...

Hot and warble flus

Many of these heavy, large-headed, hairy flics look like stout-legged bees. The short-lived adults do not feed. LlEE CYCLE The larvae arc all internal parasites of mammals such as sheep and cattle. Bot flics lay larvae directly into the nostrils of their hosts. Warble flics lay eggs on the hair of the host, and the larvae burrow under the skin. Eully grown larvae emerge and pupate in the soil. OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide, especially in the Northern I lemisphere and Africa. Near their hosts. i'antop...

Dwarf spiders

As the common name implies, many of these spiders are small. The ehelicerae are relatively large, with sharp teeth, and the legs have strong bristles. Males may have odd projections on the carapace, which may carry the eyes. Coloration varies from pale yellow to black and some have pale patches or banded legs. Many species attach nonsticky sheet webs to vegetation. Passing insects are knocked down on to the web, where the spider bites them from below with its chelicera and drags them under the...

Snakeflies

_ the two families that make up the order Raphidioptera, which contains 150 species in total. Both families have similar features. All snakeflies have two pairs of wings and a slightly flattened head with forward-pointing mouthparts that are used for chewing. The pronotum is typically elongate. Species belonging to the Inocellidae, the smaller of the two families, are distinguishable from the Raphidiidae in that they do not have ocelli and their antennae are long. Snakeflies are closely related...

Coleoptera

Squarish pronotum characteristic of Sagra species i broad tarsal segments for good grip on leaf surface A cau s pi de a reg au s is native to Brazil. This very round species has red, netlike patterning and flat expansions of the elvtra at the sides. black and yellow to o range-red longitudinal A Sacra species may he called jeweled frog beetles due to their strong hindlcgs, used in male-to-male combat and for defense. The larvae live inside plant stems. t> Leptinotarsa decemuneata, the...

Ichneumon wasps

These generally slender wasps may be yellowish brown to black, and may have either brown and black or yellow and black patterning. The slender abdomen is usually joined to the thorax by a thin stalk. 'The ovipositor is typically long and clearly visible, although it is short in some species. Til K CYCLF Females mainly attack the larvae and pupae of insects such as beetles, flies, moths, sawflies, and other wasps. Some species use spiders as hosts. 'They use their long ovipositors to lay eggs on...

Orb

Spirals of sticky silk are constructed across open spaces. Some webs can be strong enough to catch birds. This is a silk-lined tunnel with a hinged lid to provide shelter and protection as the spider waits for prey. Some spiders make small webs that they hold in their legs and throw over passing prey. Tangles of silk seen in buildings may be made by daddy-long-legs. Other species make cob webs in vegetation. M ost crustaceans are abundant in the sea and belong to the group Malacostraca. This...

Crane flies

Also called daddy-long-legs, these fragile flics arc well known for shedding their very long legs easily if caught. They are mostly brown, black, or gray with yellow or pale brown markings. The end of the abdomen is blunt and expanded in males, while females have a pointed ovipositor. LIFE CYCLE Eggs arc typically laid in soil. Fhe larvae live in soil, rotting wood, birds' nests, and bogs, where they eat roots, decaying organic material, fungal threads, and mosses. Some aquatic crane flies may...

Pselaphid beetles

I lie abdomen of these small brown beetles is considerably broader than the pronotum and the I J EE CYCLE Little is known about the life cycle of most species. Adults, and presumably larvae as well, cat mites, small insects, and other invertebrates. OCCURRENCE Worldwide. Under bark, in rotting vegetation and wood, and in moss, leaf litter, caves, and soil. Some species live in ant colonics. short elytra leave last abdomen exposed segment of < batrisodis di'iaporti lives in association with...

Plasterer and yellowfaced bees

These solitary bees are slender to fairly robust, and most are very dark or black. The body hairs arc pale golden or white, and the abdominal hairs often form bands. LIFIC (CYCI E Plasterer bees dig burrows in soil, waterproofing the cells with a special abdominal secretion. Yellow-faced bees nest in hollow plant stems and the burrows of wood-boring insects. Each larval cell is supplied with regurgitated pollen and nectar. Occurrence Worldwide, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Often on...

Gph

Acanthomaposticalis 204 Acanthosomatidae 85 acanthosomatid l> ii s 85 Acari 223 Acaridac 223 acarids 223 Acarus siro 223 Aceraius rectidens 126 Acherontia atropos 171 Acrididae 64 Acroceridae 141 Actios I una 169 Admiral, Red 174 Ad setta statices 172 Aedes cantons 138 Aedothrips tenuicomis 101 Aeolothripidac 101 Aeolothrips specics 101 Acshnidac 53 African Desert I vocust 64 Agaonidac 194 Agelcnidae 228 Agelenopsis species 228 Agestrata luzonica 114 Agromyzidae 141 Agrvtis ipsilon 165 Agulla...

Honeybees and their relatives

I he most familiar members of this family are the stout, very hairy bumblebees and the smaller, more slender honeybees. Most females have a special pollen basket (corbiculum) on the outside of the hind tibiae. (Coloration is highly varied. LlFF CY( A L These bees are social and live in colonics consisting of an egg-laying queen, males (drones), and sterile worker females who find food and look after the young. Bumblebees form small colonies under or on the ground. The nests in which they lay...

Parasitil mites

Most of these mites are slightly pear-shaped and yellow-brown, with one or two visible plates on the dorsal surface. In males, the second pair of legs may be stouter and adapted to grasp females when mating. I J EE CYCLE Eggs arc laid in organic debris. Nymphs are often found on insects, and many eat small insects, their larvae, and other mites. OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide. In dung, wood, and plant debris, on other mites in stored produce, and in mammal, bee, and wasp nests. PARAS II l s species are...

Mammoth wasps

1 rue to their name, these are very large wasps, with stout bodies. They have dark coloration bluish black with reddish brown markings. The ends of the wings, which may be clear, smoky, metallic blue, or orangish, appear finely wrinkled. The body is densely covered with dark or gold-colored hair. Male mammoth wasps are smaller and slimmer than the females and have longer, thicker antennae. In both sexes, there is a noticeable notch on the inside margin of the eye. LlFF CYCMi After mating,...

Spiderhunting wasps

Most spider-hunting wasps are dark blue or black with wings in shades of dark yellow, blue, or black. The body is slender, and the hindlegs arc long and spiny. Males arc smaller and more slender than the females. Some species can be very large. LlFF CYCLF Females fly or run along the ground in search of spiders. The wasps have to wrestle with their prey, but their strong venom can cripple even very large specimens. The female drags the paralyzed spider to a prepared mud nest in a crevice or...

Northern caddisflies

These species arc dark brown or slightly red or yellow. The wings have dark markings, a straight front margin, and appear to be cut-off at the rear. The front legs each have a tibial spur. I JFK CYCLE Eggs are laid in water. The larvae make cases that often look like tiny, irregular log cabins. Most larvae cat organic detritus, algae, and other OCCl IRRENCE Mainly in the Northern I Icmispherc. Around ponds, lakes, streams, ditches, temporary pools, and marshes. I ,ARVAE have a round head and...

P

Pachnoda sinuata 114 Pachy lost ica viola 204 Pachyrhynchus species 117 Pacific I )amp Wood Termite 79 Paederus species 130 Pagidolaphria flammipennis 142 Palpates libflluloides 107 Pamphiliidae 204 Pandinus imperator 214 Pantopthalmidae 149 Panorpa lugubris 134 Panotpa nuptialis 134 Panorpidae 134 Pantophthalmus bellardii 149 paper wasps 193 Papilio glaucus 176 Papilionidae 176 Paracollyria 199 Paradejeania rupioides 155 parasitic flies 155 parasitic lice 83 Parasitidac 225 parasitid mites 225...

Tijssock moths

I hese moths look similar to noetuid moths (see p. 165), but they are more hairy. Most are dull-colored, but the tropical species can be colorful. Males are slightly smaller than the females, which arc sometimes wingless. Adults lack a proboscis, and do not feed. LlFF CYCLF Females lay their eggs in batches on the bark of host trees and shrubs, often incorporating some of the irritant hairs from the end of the abdomen as a protective device against predators. The caterpillars, which may be...

Glossary

Many of the terms described here are illustrated in the introduction (see pp.6-45). Words in bold type are defined elsewhere in the glossary. The rearmost of the three main segments of a typical insect. The head and thorax are the other two main segments. I )cvcloping without obvious metamorphosis. ANTENNA < > . ANTENNAE) One of a pair of mobile appendages on the heads of insects and certain other invertebrates they respond to taste and touch. An arthropod with a body that is divided into...

C

Cacopsylla py rico la 100 caddisflies 156 finger-net 157 large 157 net-spinning 156 northern 157 ( aeciliidae 81 caeciliids 81 Caecilius flavidus 81 ( 'aims Birdwing 176 cave crickets 62 Cecidomyia species 136 Cecidomyiidac 136 (' edispsylla simplex 135 cellar beetles 131 Celyphidac 144 (Centipede, I louse 241 centipedes 240 Centraspis species 93 Centromachetes pococki 213 Cephidae 203 Cephus species 203 (Cerambycidae 113 Ceratitis capita ta 155 Ceratophy llus gallinae 135 (Jeratophyus...

Common cockroaches

Most species in this family are brown, red-brown, or black-brown, with varied markings. They are highly active, can run very fast, and fly in hot conditions. They usually hide during the day, coming out to feed after dark. Some species produce repellent chemicals that can cause skin rashes and temporary blindness. They eat a range of organic matter and food scraps, regurgitating already digested food and leaving behind their feces and a characteristic unpleasant smell. life Cycle Males may have...

Leafcutter and mason bees

Many have stout, dark brown to black bodies and may have yellow or pale markings some arc metallic blue or green. Pollen-collecting species carry their loads in a brush of hairs found underneath the abdomen. life cycle Most species lay eggs in nests made in the natural cavities of dead wood, hollow stems, and snail shells. I > eaf-cutter bees cut circular pieces of leaves or petals to line the nests' brood cells. Other species use hairs from woolly-leaved...

Cloti iodids

I he members of this family are typically long and cylindrical in shape, with short legs. They have simple biting mouthparts. The front legs of both adult and young clothodids have swollen tarsal segments that contain many silk glands. The eyes arc small, and the antennae have 10-35 segments. Life Cycle Males do not feed but use their mandibles to hold onto females during mating. There is a great deal of maternal care. The female covers her eggs with silk and bits of detritus. After the eggs...

Human lice

These lice are small, pale, and elongate, with short, strongly clawed legs for gripping onto their hosts. The small head bears distinctively dark eyes. The human louse, Pediculus humanus, also occurs on some monkeys It has two subspecies P. humanus subsp. corporis the Body Louse and P. humanus subsp. capitis the I lead Louse . I he other species in the family, P. schaefft, is found exclusively on apes. Like Cycle The Body Louse lives and lays eggs in the fibers of clothing, whereas the Head...

Flower bugs

Also known as minute pirate bugs, species in this family have relatively flat bodies that can be elongate or oval. Most flower bugs have fully developed wings, but the wings arc short in some species. The antennae have four segments. llee cycle Eggs are laid in small groups on the undersides of leaves or leafstalks. They may also be laid in stems, bark, or debris. lt i RKEN lt i WmiMwkIc. I ndcr bark and in flowers, vegetation, leaf litter, and fungi. Some live in animal nests and burrows....

Saucer bugs

Also called creeping water bugs, these flat insects have a smooth oval or rounded body. Most are dark brown to black. The front legs are used to catch prey, while the hindlegs are used for swimming. LIFE CYCLE Eggs are inserted, in rows, into the stems of aquatic plants. OCCURRENCE Worldwide. In ponds, streams, and, occasionally, hot springs. REMARK Air from the surface is trapped under the folded wings, helping the bugs stay alive and making them buoyant as they feed underwater. lyocoris...

R

Flourished during the Silurian Period 435 400 million years ago some of these were more than 39in 1m long. The marine species died out about 250 million years ago, but their descendants have been highly successful on land. An arachnid's body is divided into two parts. The head and thorax are fused together, forming a cephalothorax, or prosoma, which is joined to the abdomen, or opisthosoma. In some, the abdomen is segmented and may have a tail-like extension spiders' abdomens contain silk...

Cark Op I I Ik Young

Parental care of eggs and young is common in some centipedes, arachnids, and insects. Some female spiders wrap their eggs in silk and carry them around, or stay close by until they hatch. Scorpions and some other arachnids brood their eggs and carry recently emerged young on their backs. Among insects, it is usually the female who takes responsibility for child-care, but the males may also play a part in some families. coloration o f t ige moth indicates its unpalatahility VlKTHODS OK SKU -1...