And sawflies

HP I IE OKI )EK I lymcnoptcra contains X 91 families and 1 <><s,()()() species. These arc further divided into two suborders: primitive, plant-eating insects called sawflics (Symphyta) and wasps, ants, and bees (Apocrita). The families shown here arc arranged in three groups: social wasps and bees and ants (families Andrenidae to Vcspidac), parasitic wasps (Agaonidae to Trichogrammatidac), and sawflics (Argidae to Siricidae).

Most members of the order have two pairs of membranous wings, joined in flight by tiny hooks. In all species except the sawflics, the first abdominal segment is fused to the thorax, while the second and sometimes the third segments are narrow and form a waist. Sawfly females have a sawlikc ovipositor while female parasitic wasps often have a long, slender ovipositor, which may also be internal. The ovipositor of female bees, ants, and social wasps has evolved into a sting. Kggs issue from an opening at its base. Metamorphosis is complete. Gender is determined by haplodiploidy, a process in which fertilized eggs produce females and males arise from unfertilized eggs.

Many species show advanced forms of social behavior and play a vital role in various types of ecosystems as predators, parasites, and plant pollinators.

0rder hymknoptkra

Family ANDRKNII )AK

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