Ants

1 hese highly social insects live in colonics that consist of a dozen to several million individuals. The most commonly seen ants are the sterile, wingless, female workers. Reproductive queens and males usually have wings. The second, or second and third, segments of the abdomen arc constricted to form a distinct "waist." This waist may have either bumps or spiny processes. Most ants are red-brown or black in color, but yellow and green species also occur. Ants protect themselves by biting or stinging, or by spraying formic acid.

• I JFK CY< A M After mating, males die and queens shed their wings. Typically, a single queen lays all of a colony's eggs. As the colony grows, workers take away and protect the eggs, and then care for and feed the hatched young. If a protein diet is fed to female larvae, they become reproductivcs.

• ()(:< :i RRENi :E Worldwide. In all habitats.

• REMARK Ants are significant predators or herbivores in most habitats. Much more animal flesh, for example, is eaten by ants in African savannas than by lions, hyenas, and other carnivores. Some species, such as the leaf-cutter ants {Attn species) and the lire Ant {So/en ops is tnvkta), can be serious crop pests.

ants pulling leaves la/Ta «

worker using larva to "sew" edges of leaf together ants pulling leaves la/Ta «

worker using larva to "sew" edges of leaf together

OECOPHYUA SMARAODINA, the Green Tree or Weaver Ant, builds shelters out of leaves. Workers pull the edges of leaves together while other workers use silk produced by the larvae to stick the edges together. The larva is held in the worker's mandibles and used like a shuttle.

Larvae are white, grublike, and slightly curved. There may be hairs on the body.

Larvae are white, grublike, and slightly curved. There may be hairs on the body.

V M) RMEC/A SPECIES, the Australian bulldog ants, can long antennae

V M) RMEC/A SPECIES, the Australian bulldog ants, can long antennae

• head of some I )inoponera ants may he wider than Vein (4mm)

M Id At'ON ERA FORTE NS is found in Africa and is a predator of termites. Once a termite has been found, the ants lay trails of pheromoncs back to the nest to recruit more workers.

D/NOI'ONERA (¡RANDtS is native to parts of South America. The large workers are solitary hunters, and the colonies are small.

>/)ORYI.HS NIGRICANS is often attracted to lights after dark.

The sausage-shaped body of the males gives rise to the common name, Sausagefly.

large head and mandibles

•nlarged abdomen

>/)ORYI.HS NIGRICANS is often attracted to lights after dark.

The sausage-shaped body of the males gives rise to the common name, Sausagefly.

>vharp mandibles large formings large head and mandibles

>vharp mandibles large formings large workers • carry bits of prey

mai i males are winged

• long, stout, sausage-shaped body large workers • carry bits of prey

•nlarged abdomen

A DORYI.CS NIGRICANS colonics may contain millions of ants - all produced by a single queen. When these ants are in a nomadic phase, workers transport the queen's brood in their mandibles.

> Formica riia, the Wood Ant, is common throughout Europe. It is an important predator in forests.

mai i workers head is large to accommodate muscles that work mandibles

>4/7/1 iaevigata is one of about 200 species of leaf-cutter ant found in tropical South America. Long trails of workers return to the huge underground nest with bits of foliage on which they grow the fungus that they eat.

males are winged

• long, stout, sausage-shaped body

> heart-shaped head

> heart-shaped head

formic acid squirted from rear of abdomen an kill other insects

> Formica riia, the Wood Ant, is common throughout Europe. It is an important predator in forests.

formic acid squirted from rear of abdomen an kill other insects

0rder Hymenoptera

Family HALICTIDAE

No. of species i cnn single groove under socket of each antenna

very hairy legs

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