Barklice and Booklice

^ OMMONEY KNOWN as barklice

__and booklice, the order Psocoptera contains 35 families and 3,000 species. Drab and soft-bodied, these common insects are often overlooked. The large head has a bulbous forehead, bulging eyes, and long, threadlike antennae. The thorax appears humped when seen from the side, and there are usually two pairs of membranous wings, held rootlike over the body when folded. A few species bear live young, but most lay eggs. Metamorphosis is incomplete, and there are usually five nymphal stages.

These insects are found in a range of terrestrial habitats, from soil to tree canopies, where they eat algae, lichens, molds, and fungal spores. Some eat pollen and plant tissues. Many species are solitary but some can be gregarious.

0rder PSOCOPTKRA

Family CAKCII.IIIMK

No. of species

Cakciuids ost cacciliids arc brown, yellow, or green in color and either fully winged or short-winged -very few are wingless. The wings may have markings, and the front edge of the forewings and wing veins are covered in short hairs.

• Life Cycle Typically, a batch of 12-16 eggs is laid on leaves. Where there is more than one generation each year, the autumn-laid eggs fall with the leaves on to the leaf litter and hatch out in spring.

• OCCl IRRENCE Worldwide. In a range of habitats. Commonly in the foliage of deciduous trees and in low-growing vegetation and grasses. A few are found among I

Feeding habits ^

Order pSOCOPTKRA

Family ECTOPSOCIDAK

No. of species j «jq bctopsocids

These pale brown species may have dark brown bands on antennae have 13 segments their abdomen. The head is covered with hairs. They have fairly small eyes and 1 .^-segmented antennae that are quite long in males hut shorter in females.

• I A EE CYC "EE Females lay batches of eggs on the veins of dead or withering leaves and cover them w ith silk threads produced by special glands. In good conditions - a hospitable, disease-free environment with ample food - populations can become very large. The adultlike nymphs are hairy and feed on fungal threads, rotting matter, algae, and sometimes on pollen.

• OCCl RRENCE Worldwide. In various habitats. Among the dry leaves of various deciduous tree species or in leaf litter. Some species occur in greenhouses or in houses.

• rectangular pterostigma

• rectangular pterostigma pate legs pate legs

Ecrorsoci \S liRiaasi is a European species, found on deciduous trees. Most members of this species have fully developed wings, although short-winged forms occur occasionally.

veins of forewings edged yellow with red-brown brown central (+ :> stripe on head \

CAECIUUS HI AVI I) f s is abundant on the leaves of many deciduous trees. This species is native to Europe, including the British Isles.

veins of forewings edged yellow with red-brown brown central (+ :> stripe on head \

0rder PSOCOPTKRA

Family LlPOSCKLIDAE

No. of species j t^Q

Feeding habits ^

Family pSCX:il>AK

No. of species 500

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