Black flies

I Jsually black or dark brown, these flics have a stout, hump-backed appearance. The antennae and legs are short.

• LIFE CYCLE Eggs are laid in running water. Larvae stick to stones and plants by means of a holdfast organ at their rear and pupate in submerged cases. When the adults emerge, they rise to the surface of the water and fly off.

• OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide. Near flowing water.

• RKMAKK Sitnuhum species carry the roundworm that causes river blindness in tropical regions.

I „ARVAE use their posterior sucker to anchor themselves.

SlMllUUM SPECIES are also known as black flies, although some are not entirely black. Many species carry disease.

Length '/^-Vifcin (l-5mm), most under Vuin (4mm)

Larval feeding habits

Order |)IPTKRA

Family TlPULIDAE

No. of species j c^ qqq

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