Bugs

'JP IIK ORDER IlEMIPTERA consists

_ of 134 families and 82,000 species.

lUigs range from minute, wingless insects to giant water bugs that can catch fish and frogs. They are found in all terrestrial habitats, in freshwater, and even on the surface of southern oceans.

Modern classification recognizes four suborders: the Coleorrhyncha (just one family); the I Ictcroptera (true bugs); the Auchenorrhyncha (plant-, leaf-, and tree-hoppers, lantern bugs, and cicadas); and the Sternorrhyncha (jumping plant lice, whiteflies, aphids, and scale insects). The selection below is div ided into true bugs (Acanthosomatidae to Tingidac);

hoppers and relatives (Aphrophoridae to Mcmbracidae); and aphids and relatives (Aleyrodidae to Psyllidae).

Only the true bugs include predacious and blood-sucking species; the others are herbivorous. All bugs have piercing, sucking mouthparts in the form of a long rostrum made up of slender stylets sheathed by the labium. Many bugs that suck plant sap are serious crop pests.

Metamorphosis is incomplete. Kggs are laid in and on vegetation and soil, and under bark. There are typically about five nymphal stages. Some bugs produce live young, and others reproduce without the need for males.

0rder 11KMIPTKKA

Family ACANTIIOSOMAT1DAK

No. of species 250

Family ACANTIIOSOMAT1DAK

No. of species 250

0rder 11KMIPTKKA

* pair patches 1 wingtips

A f.iasmosthiil is intrrstinctus, the European Birch Shield Bug, favors mixed woodland and also feeds on ha/el and aspen.

Acant1iosomatii) bugs

I hese hugs arc similar to their close relations, the shield-hacked hugs (see p.94). 'They arc usually green, brown, or gray, although some arc brightly colored. The head is small, and the body is oval or tapers behind the wide pronotum.

• L11 I; CYCLE Eggs are laid on host shrubs and trees. Nymphs and adults suck sap from these plants.

• OCCl !rren(:e Worldwide, especially in warm regions. In various ^^

woods, meadows, and scrubland, wherever their host plants are found.

• Remark Some females guard the eggs until they hatch. Small nymphs may shelter under their mother's body when predators threaten. **

dark spots

> f.lasml'cha (irisha is called the Parent Bug because of its advanced maternal behavior. It feeds on birch foliage.

* pair patches 1 wingtips

A f.iasmosthiil is intrrstinctus, the European Birch Shield Bug, favors mixed woodland and also feeds on ha/el and aspen.

Order

KMII'TKRA

Family ALYDIDAH

four antennal

broad head thick hind femur drab coloration characteristic spines on hind femur in many species long legs

Feeding habits 0 ^

drab coloration spines on hind femur in many species

A Hyalymenus sim:ciks have nymphs that look and move much like ants. The adults feed on carrion or bird droppings.

long legs

Al.YDUS CALCARATUS is the only species of broad-headed bug to occur in the British Isles. It is also widespread in the Northern Hemisphere. Its host plants belong to the pea family.

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