Carcinophorid karwios

Most of these short-legged species lack hindwings, and in some species, the short, toughened forewings are also absent. Many species arc dark-colored in shades of dark brown, black, or reddish with paler yellow or red markings. The antennae have fewer than 20 segments, and the abdominal forceps, which are typically short, may not be symmetrical in males.

• LIKE CYOKK Eggs are laid in burrows or in leaf litter.

• OCCt RRENCE Worldwide, especially in warmer regions. In a wide range of habitats.

• REMARK Some species of earwigs are significant pests of cultivated flowers and fruits.

carc/nophora sim-cm s are found mostly in South America, with some in North America and the Ear East. The species seen here has both fore- and hindwings.

forewings pa ir of stout forceps at end of abdomen

> I'itanoiahis colossi a is the largest known earwig.

The genus Ufa no/a bis contains four species, which are native to Australia.

hinc/wings folded under forewings

0rder Dkrmaptkra

Family FORI ICI LIDAK

No. of species 45Q

Common earwigs

I licsc typically slender earwigs vary in appearance but are usually dark brown or blackish brown, with paler legs and threadlike antennae. The abdominal forceps of the male earwigs are highly curved, whereas those of the females are relatively straight.

• life Cycle Females usually lay eggs in soil under rocks or bark. They guard the eggs against predators and lick them clean to prevent any fungal growth. Apart from plant matter, the diet may include small caterpillars, aphids, and other insects.

• occl jkrence Worldwide. In leaf litter and soil, under bark, or in crevices.

• remark These insects can be pests of crops or garden plants.

Al.LODAHI.IA SPI (:11s arc found in India, Malaysia, and various parts of the Far East.

FORhlCl 11A AI UK!IHARIA, the European Earwig, is now very widespread and is a well-known pest of flowers.

Length y2_

Feeding habits ^ 0 ^

No. of species 75

> ToRcinriA spkcii s number 30 in total. Some live in wet sand and eat sand fleas.

dark stripes on formings red-brown coloration

long abdominal forceps

0rder Dkrmaptkra

Family lahidliridak

No. of species 75

striped earwigs

Also called long-horned earwigs due to their long antennae, these relatively robust insects are reddish brown. They are usually winged, although some species are wingless. Common species have dark stripes on the pronotum and wing cases.

• I ill CYCI E Female striped earwigs lay their eggs in deep tunnels that they have dug in sandy soil.

• Occurrence Worldwide, mainly in warmer regions. Around coastal areas, riverbanks, and mudflats; in leaf litter, sand, and debris, or under stones.

• REMARK Some species can discharge a foul-smelling liquid produced by abdominal glands.

LABIDIIRA RII'ARIA is now found practically worldwide. It lives on sandy beaches and along shores and rivers.

> ToRcinriA spkcii s number 30 in total. Some live in wet sand and eat sand fleas.

dark stripes on formings red-brown coloration long abdominal forceps antennae have

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