Chernetids

In this family, the fingers of the pincers have teeth, and a poison gland is present only in the movable finger. The eyes arc either weakly developed or absent. Males may be different in appearance from the females. Chernetids arc shiny and colored a variety of shades of brown.

• I JFK CY< :i I; Males and females engage in a courtship dance, gripping each other with their pedipalps. As in all other species, the eggs arc kept inside a sac under the female. Newly hatched nymphs may cling to the sides of their mother. There arc three nymphal stages.

• ()(:(:i RRENi :E Worldwide. In leaf litter, debris, caves, and the nests and burrows of birds and small mammals.

pedipalp pedipalp

CHERNETH) SPKCIKS are found in the Northern 1 Icmisphcrc and in tropical regions of South America. The specimen shown here lives in caves in parts of Venezuela.

Order

IVSKl'IX )S( X)RIMONKS

No. of species 57Q

Chthoniids

In these arachnids, the abdomen is typically much longer than the carapace, which in turn covers the dorsal surface of the rest of the body and may be broader at the front than at the rear. Most species have four eyes and large chelicerae. On the first two pairs of legs, the tarsi have a single segment, whereas those on the third and fourth pairs of legs have two segments. The overall coloration varies from shades of brown to olive-green, and the legs arc tinged with pink.

• LIFE CYCLE Kggs are brooded inside the female's sac. The live young arc usually released on to soil, leaf litter, or bark. There are three nymphal stages, as in all pseudoscorpions.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide, except in the extreme north or south. In various sheltered places, among soil and leaf litter, and under tree bark. Others are found among seashore debris, in or near buildings, 011 wasteland, in caves, and in gardens and greenhouses.

tarsi on third and fourth pa irs of legs have two segments *

tarsi on first and second pairs of legs have one segment

Vs» very brightly colored because under a microscope slide

CHTHONHJS SPKCIliS are extremely widespread and are found in leaf litter, at the base of grasses, under stones, and in the nests of birds and small mammals.

tarsi on third and fourth pa irs of legs have two segments *

tarsi on first and second pairs of legs have one segment

Vs» very brightly colored because under a microscope slide

CHTHONHJS SPKCIliS are extremely widespread and are found in leaf litter, at the base of grasses, under stones, and in the nests of birds and small mammals.

Feeding habits ft

0rder PSKUDOSCORIMONKS

Family nkobisiidak

No. of species c^oo

NliOBISIIDS

The carapace of these pseudoscorpions is quite angular or square when seen from above, and the chelicerae arc large. In all the pairs of walking legs, the tarsi arc made up of two segments, and the claw of the pedipalp has a poison gland only in the fixed finger. There are usually four eyes, but there may be fewer, or none at all, in cave-living species. The overall coloring varies from olive shades to dark brown, perhaps with red, yellow, or cream tinges. The legs are often slightly green in color. Small items of prey arc held and paralyzed with venom and are then shredded by the large chelicerae.

• LIFE CYCLE Eggs arc carried by the female in her brood sac, and the live young are typically released onto soil, leaf litter, or bark.

There are three nymphal stages.

• OCCl JRRENGE Worldwide, especially in the Northern I lemisphcrc. Many - typically smaller species - live in leaf litter and soil, and some arc found in caves.

nkobishjm maritimum is native to coastal areas of Ireland, England, and France. It is found in cracks in rocks and under stones, from the upper shore to the splash /.one.

red-brown pedipalps dark

• céphalothorax f olive-green legs sun-spidkrs

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