1 hesc colony-living web-spinners are usually quite stout. Males have two pairs of wings that bend forward, as is typical of the order. This allows them to move backward in the colony's galleries. When flying, a substance is pumped into a special wing vein to stiffen each wing.

• I ,IFE ( < :i T Eggs are laid in silk lined galleries. The female guards the eggs and young until they disperse.

• OCCl IRRENCE South America and Africa. In various habitats, in bark, tree holes, and cracks, and under stones and rocks.

swollen tarsal segment biting \

cwi'hoda ( richi, seen here inside its silken web, is a native of Trinidad and is either communal or solitary. Both types live in the same silk nest as their nymphs, but communal females produce more eggs than solitary females.

EMBIII) SPECIES have very similar characteristics to members of the family Clothodidae (see above).

forward-pointing head dark coloration fully developed in this species • wings in males

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