Gomphus

VIJIXiATlSSIMI 'S, also called the European Club-tailed Dragonfly, is found in northern and central parts of Europe.

yellowish thorax with dark markings swelling just before apes of abdomen produces "clubbed tail "

Wingspan 2'/>^/.in (6-12cm)

Nymphal feeding habits ^

0rder ODONAI A

Family UrkLLULIDAK

No. of species | jqq

dark wing pale stripes either

relatively broad, flat abdomen yellow marks at side of abdomen in both sexes male has pale blue abdomen (female's is brownish yellow)

nymimis are often squat and slightly flat in shape.

Common skimmers

I hese skimmers are also called darters due to their unpredictable flight pattern. Many species are stout-bodied, and they are often extremely colorful. The wings may have dark, irregular markings.

• life Cycle Females usually hover over water and dip or strike their abdomen below the surface to release the eggs, which fall onto plants or to the bottom. The nymphs hunt for prey in mud and debris or on plants.

• occl irrence Worldwide. In various habitats, including forests and mountainous areas, near slow-flowing streams, ponds, and bogs.

dark wing pale stripes either nymimis are often squat and slightly flat in shape.

relatively broad, flat abdomen

LlREUl IA DEI'RISSX is a European species whose adults fly in June and July. Its nymphs take up to three years to mature.

yellow marks at side of abdomen in both sexes male has pale blue abdomen (female's is brownish yellow)

Stoneflies

^ I IK 15 KAMIUKS AND 2,000 spccics

_ of stoneflies form the order

Plecoptera. The body of a stonefly is typically soft, relatively flat, and slender. The elongate abdomen ends in a pair of tails (cerci), while the legs arc sturdy. Although stoneflies have two pairs of wings, they are not strong fliers and are never found very far from water. The mouthparts arc cither underdeveloped or absent. In many species, the adults arc short-lived and do not feed at all.

In the courting rituals of these insects, the males of many species attract females by drumming the underside of the abdomen against the ground or by trembling. In most spccics, the males and females "duct" - that is, they send courtship sounds back and forth between them. After mating on plant matter or on the ground, the females lay egg masses in water. Metamorphosis is incomplete. Most aquatic nymphs have gill-tufts and two terminal abdominal filaments. The nymphs pass through more than 30 molts before they finally emerge as adults.

Stoneflies occur all over the world but arc most common in cool, temperate regions. I lowcvcr, there are five stonefly families that arc found only in the Southern I Icmisphcrc.

0rder plkcoi'tkra

Small winter stoneflies

I he majority of these relatively slender stoneflies are dark colored usually brown or black. The abdominal tails and antennae may be as long as the body.

• I AI M CY(:LK Adults emerge during winter to mate and lay eggs in water.

• ()(X:i)KKKNCK Northern I Icmisphcrc. hy streams and lakes.

Nymphs arc yellow to brown, with short hairs and long antennae.

long abdominal tails in adults and nymph.

long abdominal tails in adults and nymph.

CAPNIA lilt HONS is ii species in which the male, shown here, has no wings.

Nymphal feeding habits 0

CAPNIA lilt HONS is ii species in which the male, shown here, has no wings.

Nymphal feeding habits 0

Order

Plkcoptkka

Rolled-winged s ix >nefi a lis

At rest, the wings of these slender, usua brown stoneflies are either folded down or rolled around the sides of the body hence the name. The cerci are very short.

• LlKK CYCKK Adults often emerge very early in the year to mate and lay eggs in water.

• OCClJRRKNCK Mainly Northern Hemisphere. Often by small streams, springs, or lakes.

Nymphs are slender and yellowish in color.

downward pointing head slender legs <

Nymphs are slender and yellowish in color.

downward pointing head slender legs <

1.1 UCTRA spiicii-s have dull coloring. At rest, their wings are rolled tightly around the body.

No. of species 400

long antennae brownish coloring

dlnocras cepiialotes is a Kuropean species whose nymphs may molt more than 30 times and take up to five years to mature.

transparent wings

this species has a slim, dark body flat body

• wide hindwings

0rder PLKCOPTKRA

Family NKMOt IRIDAK

No. of species 400

Nymphal feeding habits

0rder PLKCOPTKRA

Family pKRU,)AK

No. of species 400

Spring stonkfliks

Sometimes called brown stoncflies because of their typical coloring, most species in this family arc stout-bodied. Many have mottled wing patterns and extremely short cerci.

• I JM ( ]Y( 11 1 Most species emerge as adults, mate, and lay eggs in water during spring and summer. The nymphs are characteristically dull brown in color, with spines and body hairs. They mostly feed on detritus and algae, although some species feed on leaves.

• OCCl KKi:NCi: Northern I lemisphere. By lakes, springs, and fast-flowing streams.

transparent wings in y m l'IIS' wing pads are not parallel to the body.

this species has a slim, dark body iwemol ra camllrica is a slim-bodied stonefly, quite common throughout Kuropc. Typical of its family, it has brownish coloration and is found near streams.

Length 1 y4in (1 -4.8cm), most under I in (2.5cm) Nymphal feeding habits £

Common stonkfliks

Yellow or brown in general coloring, these stoncflies have minute remains of the nymphal gill-tufts on the underside of the thorax, near the bases of the legs.

• I AI M CY< IL\i Females lay a ball of sticky eggs in the water. The nymphs take several years to reach adulthood and may he significant predators in some habitats.

• OCCI IKKKNCK Worldwide, except Australia. On vegetation near running water.

• KKMAKR I nlike most stoneflies, some species in this family are very tolerant of warm conditions.

dlnocras cepiialotes is a Kuropean species whose nymphs may molt more than 30 times and take up to five years to mature.

long antennae brownish coloring

NYMPHS have branched gills on the thorax as well as on the abdomen.

flat body distinctive "double-ladder" vein pattern on • forewings

• wide hindwings

NEOPERIA CI.) \1 ENE is common in North American streams. Other members of the genus favor broad rivers.

0rder PLKCOPTKRA

Family pKRL()DmAK

yellow-red rentrai stripe on head and pronotum brownish coloration

//) DROI'ERIA CROSliYl is a North American species. The sexes of this species exchange messages via special drumming sounds.

Predatory stoneflies

Species in this family range from pale yellow to dark brown. They have a square pronotum and long abdominal tails. • IJFE CYCLE Eggs are generally laid in streams in spring. Fully grown nymphs crawl onto stones to emerge as adults in late spring or early summer. The adults are active during the day, rarely feed, and most die soon after laying their eggs. The nymphs are largely predacious, although they may eat plant matter or rotting material when very young. | | • OCCl JRRENCE Northern I lemisphere. In and around medium- to large-sized, stony-bottomed streams.

yellow-red rentrai stripe on head and pronotum brownish coloration multisegmented cerci nymphs are waxy-looking, with light and dark patterning and long legs.

//) DROI'ERIA CROSliYl is a North American species. The sexes of this species exchange messages via special drumming sounds.

Length yUt_2in (0.8-5cm), most under lin (2.5cm) NvmPhal feedinS habits

0rder Plkcoptkra

Family p | krqnaRCYIDAK | No. of species 12

relatively large

wings folded around body at rest

Nymphal feeding habits

(jlant stoneflies

I he adults of this family have broad, heavy bodies. Their coloration is either gray or brown. Giant stoneflies are active mostly after dark.

• I JFK CYCLK Dark, rounded eggs are laid in water. The nymphs take up to three years to develop and use their mandibles to shred aquatic plants and detritus. Adults emerge in summer and do not feed.

• OCCURRENCE Northern Hemisphere. In streams and rivers.

• REMARK Pteronarcys call font tea is the well-known "salmonfly" (newly j emerged adults are salmon-pink), t used by anglers to catch trout in western North America.

brown coloration

PTE RON A RCEL1A HADIA is a widespread species in western parts of North America.

Nymphs can be large and many have distinctive lateral expansions on the thorax and abdomen.

relatively large wings folded around body at rest

area oj hindt ing • with no cross veins

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