Gonyleptids

Members of this family typically have stout bodies with a broad, sometimes flat-ended, rear. Many are brightly colored. The first part of the hindleg is enlarged and may have long, sharp spines. The eyes are close together and borne on a small protuberance. Males tend to have smaller bodies, and often much spinier legs, than females. Most species arc active after dark and may produce chemicals to deter attackers.

• i .ikk Cycle: Eggs arc laid in damp, sheltered spots. Generally, the females do not look after their eggs, although there is one species that builds a protective mud wall around both herself and her eggs.

• ()(:Cl IRRENCE Mainly in South American tropical forests. Under logs and stones.

long, slender small pedipalps held close to chelicerae

DlSCOO RTl 'S SPKCIKS arc natives of the Brazilian rainforests. With their distinctive triangular bodies and enlarged hindlegs, their appearance is typical of this family.

red-brown coloration

VONOM S SAYI is found in Panama. It uses its front legs to smear toxic secretions onto attackers.

claw at tip small bumps on ojpedipalp first segment of fourth leg enlarged tarsus of second leg may have 50 segments second pair of legs is especially saddle-shaped mark

PHA1ANGH1M OPIUO is a white-gray to yellow species with a saddle-shaped mark 011 its back. It is found in the woods, gardens, and grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere.

dark upper surface pedipalps have no spines very long legs pale underside long tarsi

0rder Opilionks

Family EKIOBUNIDAK

No. of species 45Q

Feeding habits

Opilionks

Family PhaLANCJIIDAK

Leiobunids

The bodies of these harvcstmcn vary. Most have very long, slender legs, with two rows of small "teeth" on the first segment. The second pair of walking legs may be 15 times as long as the body.

• life Cycle Little is known about courtship and egg-laying. In some species, mating involves large gatherings of males and females on tree stumps or mossy knolls, where males fight each other, often biting off each other's legs. Larger males usually win the contests and mate with the waiting females.

• OCCURRENCE Temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere, especially North America and Europe, and in some tropical regions but absent from Africa. In moist places in woodland and cave entrances.

• remark Leiobunids use their eyes to distinguish light and dark, but they are not able to perceive images.

dark upper surface pedipalps have no spines very long legs pale underside long tarsi

LEIOBIJNUM ROTVNM1M is active at night, descending from trees to hunt for food at ground level. Its long, flexible tarsi can be wrapped tightly around grass blades for a strong grip.

phalangiids

These arachnids usually have soft bodies and may have many spiny projections. The first leg segment is smooth, but the other segments may have longitudinal, sometimes spined, ridges. Males and females may differ, the males enlarged chelieerae being especially distinct. Many species are nocturnal, but some are also active during the day.

• LIFE CYCLE Females use their telescopic, flexible ovipositor to lay eggs under bark or in soil crevices.

The young stay in low vegetation at first, climbing into bushes and trees when older.

• Occurrence Worldwide, mainly in temperate regions. Under stones and among leaf litter in wooded and grassy areas.

• REMARK Several species arc-now adapted to living in houses.

PHA1ANGH1M OPIUO is a white-gray to yellow species with a saddle-shaped mark 011 its back. It is found in the woods, gardens, and grasslands of the Northern Hemisphere.

tarsus of second leg may have 50 segments second pair of legs is especially saddle-shaped mark

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