Horse flies

Also called deer flics, clegs, and gad flies, these stout, hairless insects have colorful, patterned eyes in flat, round heads. Most are black, gray, or brown with broad abdomens that often have bright bands or markings. The females' bladelike mouthparts are adapted for cutting skin. Male horse flies do not have biting mouthparts and drink at pools and flowers.

• I JFK CYCLIC Eggs are laid in places such as soil and rotting wood. Larvae typically live in wet soil or mud near ponds and streams, where they eat worms, crustaceans, and insect larvae. Some live in rotting tree-holes or decaying wood. Adults feed on pollen and nectar. Females also take blood from mammals and birds.

• OCCl IRRKNCK Worldwide. In a very wide range of habitats, near mammals.

• RKMARk In warm regions, horse flies can spread diseases affecting animals anil humans.

I ARVAE are mostly tough and slightly shiny, with fine, longitudinal striations.

TABANUS ATRATUS is a black horse fly found throughout the IJS. This and other species bite cattle and can damage beef production. They may also transmit viruses to livestock.

, mt green or purple eyes, with iridescent bands and spots eyes occupy most of head

TABANl/S SPECIES are dark and robust. This large specimen is probably mimicking a big bee such as a carpenter bee (see p. 179)

large eyes round head, concave j* behind

No. of species ^ 000

head appears much narrower than abdomen thick black spines or bristles on abdomen

A paradejeania rutieoides is found in northwestern parts of the [ IS. It attacks and parasitizes several different types of caterpillar.

phas/a iiemiptera parasitizes shield bugs (see p.92). It is found in meadows and woodlands in parts of Europe, including the British Isles.

angular wings ™

bristles on body stout abdomen this species has a relatively hairless body

brilliant blue and green markings

Larval feeding habits

Order DIPTERA

Family

'EPIIRITIDAE

No. of species 4 ^qq

Order [)n>TKRA

Family TACHINIDAE

No. of species ^ 000

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