Hot and warble flus

Many of these heavy, large-headed, hairy flics look like stout-legged bees. The short-lived adults do not feed. • LlEE CYCLE The larvae arc all internal parasites of mammals such as sheep and cattle. Bot flics lay larvae directly into the nostrils of their hosts. Warble flics lay eggs on the hair of the host, and the larvae burrow under the skin. Eully grown larvae emerge and pupate in the soil.

• OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide, especially in the Northern I lemisphere and Africa. Near their hosts.

small antennae, in large head

Length Xô-1 in (0.8-2.5cm)

Larval feeding habits ^

Order DIPTERA

Family PanTOPTHALMIDAE

No. of species 25

do not meet in females antennae narrow i'antop/eehaeml's heuari)// is widespread in tropical South America. The adults of this dark brow n species probably feed on sap and other fluids.

thorax has three longitudinal stripes square abdomen coloration

Timber flies

These flies look like large horseflies (sec p. 154) but with small, nonbiting mouthparts. The abdomen is typically square and the wings darkly patterned.

• LlEE CYCLE Small groups of eggs are laid in cracks in tree bark, and the larvae burrow into the wood. It is uncertain whether they digest the wood or eat sap, fungi, and decaying matter.

• OCCURRENCE South America, in rainforests.

,ARVAE are stout and may take up to two years to mature.

i'antop/eehaeml's heuari)// is widespread in tropical South America. The adults of this dark brow n species probably feed on sap and other fluids.

antennae narrow do not meet in females thorax has three longitudinal stripes square abdomen coloration

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