Ichneumon wasps

These generally slender wasps may be yellowish brown to black, and may have either brown and black or yellow and black patterning. The slender abdomen is usually joined to the thorax by a thin stalk. 'The ovipositor is typically long and clearly visible, although it is short in some species.

• Til K CYCLF Females mainly attack the larvae and pupae of insects such as beetles, flies, moths, sawflies, and other wasps. Some species use spiders as hosts. 'They use their long ovipositors to lay eggs on or inside the host.

• OCCl 1RRKNCF Worldwide, especially in temperate areas. In a wide range of habitats where hosts occur.

• RFMAKK Many species benefit humans by controlling populations of other insects.

long ovipositor for drilling timber or penetrating burrows black and whitish yellow marks on abdomen reddish legs

Larvae are pale and maggotlike. Some have a tail that shortens with age.

0rder HYMKNOPTKRA

Family MYMARIDAK

No. of species | 400

Fairyflies

I his family includes the world's smallest flying insects. They arc dark brown, black, or yellow in coloration, but are never metallic. The narrow forewings lack any conspicuous vein pattern but have a distinctive fringe of hairs. The stalked and straplike hindwings are also fringed with minute hairs.

• llff Cycle The females of all species parasitize the eggs of other insects. Most specialize on the eggs of plant-hoppers and other bug families, but the eggs of a range of other insects arc also used as hosts.

• Occurrence

Worldwide. In a wide variety of habitats, wherever hosts arc found. Larvak arc tiny

• remark Several and tailcd at first) species have been used an(j grublike at a to control insect pests. later stage.

AN AG !W S oriAHIUS is a specialist parasitoid of the eggs of certain plant-hoppers (the family Delphacidae). Related species have been used to control plant-hoppers that attack rice crops.

Length i/w_x„in (0.2-5mm), most Ifc-K*in (0.5-1.5mm)

Larval feeding habits stalklike wing bases slender antennae Si

stalklike wing bases slender antennae Si

No. of species cjqq long, slender legs tapered abdomen reddish toward base pterostigma

Larvak arc small, smooth, pale, and grublikc.

EX A I.ION YX LON GI CORN IS is widespread in Europe and Asia, where it parasitizes rove-beetle larvae (see p. 130).

Order HYMKNOPTKRA

Family PRcxn'OTRUPIDAK

No. of species cjqq

Proctotrupids

Most of the species in this family arc either very dark or black in color and smooth-surfaced. The abdomen tapers at both ends and is often paler than the thorax and head. There is a conspicuous pterostigma on the relatively large forewings.

• LIFE Cv< AM Females seek out the larvae of beetles, and sometimes of gall midges, that live in leaf litter or decaying wood and lay eggs inside them. When fully grown, the larva chews a hole through the membrane between two abdominal segments of its host and emerges almost completely. It pupates with its rear end still in contact with the host's remains.

• Occurrence

Worldwide. In woodland and a range of moist habitats.

long, slender legs distinctive pterostigma tapered abdomen reddish toward base

Larvak arc small, smooth, pale, and grublikc.

EX A I.ION YX LON GI CORN IS is widespread in Europe and Asia, where it parasitizes rove-beetle larvae (see p. 130).

I"

pterostigma

A PROCTOTRUn s GRAVIDA'/OR occurs throughout the Northern I lemisphcre and in parts of Southeast Asia. It parasitizes ground-beetle larvae (see p.l 12).

0rder HYMKNOPTERA

No. of species 4 qqq

0 0

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