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INSIDK AN INSKCT An insect's central nervous system consists of a brain connected to nerve masses called ganglia. The peripheral nervous system is composed of sensory nerves that gather information from sensory receptors and motor nerves that control the muscles.

The respiratory system consists of a network of tubes. Air is taken in through openings, called spiracles, on the abdomen or thorax. The immature stages of aquatic species take in air through gills.

The circulatory system is an open one, where the organs arc bathed in a fluid called hemolymph that transports nutrients and waste around the body.

The digestive system is an open-ended tube with areas for grinding and storing food, producing enzymes, and absorbing nutrients.

To reproduce, males typically transfer sperm to the female's sperm store via a penis (aedeagus), and eggs are fertilized as tliey pass down the female's oviduct.

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