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Infested Tree i Iopper

This tree hopper (Membraridae, see p. 98) has been infested with red parasitic mites. The mites feed on the bugs' hernolymph by penetrating the cuticle with their mouth parts, especially at joints and where the cuticle is thin.

Coprophagous Species

Some species live on the droppings of other animals. Scarab beetles eat only dung, and in Africa, where there are numerous grazing mammals, there are thousands of species of dung beetle all using the droppings of various animals in different ways to rear their young. The larvae of many flies also breed in dung.

Melliphagous Species

With the exception of wind-pollinated grasses, most flowering plants are dependent on insects for pollination. In order to attract the right species, plants offer rewards of sugar-rich nectar and protein-rich pollen. While the insects supply their larval cells with these foods, the flowers are, in turn, pollinated.

PSEl DOPLACENTAL SPECIES In some flies, such as the 'Tsetse My (see p. 147), the larvae do not feed independently of the mother. The egg hatches and the larva is kept inside a brood chamber, where it feeds on secretions. When the larva is ready to be released, it may fill the whole of its mother's abdomen, and will usually pupate immediately.

Deathwatch Beetle

This pest lays its eggs in crevices on wood. The larvae burrow through the timber and may take a few years to reach maturity.

larval feeding runnels • damage timber

Deathwatch Beetle

This pest lays its eggs in crevices on wood. The larvae burrow through the timber and may take a few years to reach maturity.

larval feeding runnels • damage timber

Xylophagoi s species

Wood-eating species make use of an abundant resource, but it is of poor nutritional value, so many xylophages tend to be slow-growing. Some attack living or recently dead wood, while others can eat decaying wood only. Many have internal symbiotic microorganisms to help them digest the cellulose; they may augment their diet by eating fungal hyphae and other material.

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