1 he brownish bodies of these insects are tapered, slightly flat, and usually covered with either grayish or silvery scales. They have compound eyes but no ocelli. All lepismatids are nocturnal. Some species favor cool, damp conditions, while others prefer warm, dry places.

• LlKK CYCLI The females la\ their eggs in cracks and crevices.

• OCCUKKKNCI Worldwide, especially in warmer regions. In tree canopies, under stones, and in caves; some inhabit houses or the nests of birds, ants, or termites.

• RKMAKk Domestic species cat Hour, damp textiles, hook bindings, and wallpaper paste.

to middle abdominal tail flat body

A LKI'ISMATIDS in general (this specimen is an unidentified species) have brownish, scaly bodies. They reach sexual maturity after ten to twelve molts and may live for several years.

gray, black, and -brown overlapping scales llURMOlllA DOMESTIC*, or the I irebrat, is found all over the world. This species prefers warm habitats, such as areas in buildings near ovens and hot pipes. The antennae are as long as the body, and the longer hairs on the back of its body are arranged in groups on the rear margins of the body segments.


^ III-; 23 FAMILIES and 2,500 species

_ of the order Kphcmeroptera - the mayflies - arc the oldest, most primitive winged insects. They are also the only-insects that molt after they have developed functional wings. Despite their common name, not all mayflies are common in May, and many species can he found at other times of the year.

Mayflies have soft bodies, long legs, and typically two pairs of wings. The forewings are large and triangular; the hindwings are small or may be absent altogether. Mayflies cannot fold their wings back along their body but instead hold them upward or downward. Adults do not feed and live for a very short time - some species survive for just one day. Mating occurs in swarms at dawn or dusk, and females drop their eggs into water. Metamorphosis is incomplete.

The aquatic nymphs, which usually have lateral abdominal gills and three terminal tails, eat a wide range of submerged plant and animal matter. When fully grown, they rise to the surface and molt into a form with dull-colored wings, which is known as the sub-imago stage. They then leave the water. After a period of between one hour and several days, the final molt reveals the shiny-winged adult.

0rder Eimikmkroptkra


No. of species c;oo

Length %_%in (0.3-1.4cm), most s/u'-s/i(.in (0.4-0.8cm) Nymphal feeding habits 0

A BAET1S RHODANI is usually found in fast-flowing streams. The specimen shown here is the sub-imago stage, which has dull wings.

CLOEON 1)1 PTE.RUM is a European species that breeds in a wide range of aquatic habitats, from ponds and ditches to water troughs and butts.

Small mayflies

1 hese mayflies may be pale or dark brown or black with yellowish or gray markings. The forewings are elongate and rounded, and in some species the hindwings are either small or absent altogether.

• i j ee dycit Eggs are dropped into water. The nymphs are either streamlined and swim well or slightly flat and crawl. They feed by scraping algae from surfaces. •()<:< :i RRENC IE Worldwide. In streams, rivers, ponds, and lakes.

• REMARK Small mayflies mrmnymphs can be found in higher, jgT arc sma|| and colder places than members if streamlined of other mavfly families. A in shape.

yellow-tinged veins brown on forming edge f f mottling very small hindwings two abdominal

0 0

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