I liese springtails may be white, yellow, green, or brown in color, and the upper surface is usually darker than the underside. The segments of the abdomen arc equal in size.

• LII' K Cycle: As in all springtails, males deposit rounded spermatophorcs on the ground, which the females take into their genital opening. A few isotomids arc parthenogenctic.

• occl 'kkkncl Worldwide. In soil in various habitats, but also around ponds and streams. A few species are abundant in harsh environments such as deserts, polar regions, and mountains.

1 hese hexapods are pale to yellow, brown, or black in coloration. Some arc patterned or mottled. They arc elongate with a small pronotum, and in many the fourth abdominal segment is larger than the third segment. The antennae may be more than twice the body length.

• lll p: Cycle: lemalcs lay their eggs either in soil or in leaf litter. All stages cat fungal threads or decaying plant matter.

• OCCl iKRKNCK Worldwide. In leaf litter, soil, and fungi in a variety of habitats. Some are found in caves.

quite long antennae yellow and brown coloration

ENTOMOHRYA SPECIES are commonly found on tree bark and rocks. Some species in this genus spend the whole of the winter on tree bark.

darker upper body «

ventral tube furcula

/SOTOMA VIRinis is often abundant among damp leaf litter and moss clumps. The ventral tube and curved jumping organ are clearly visible on this specimen.




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Nhaniiuid springtails

I he body of most species in this family is longer than it is wide, hut some may be squat or even flat. Many species are blue, gray, or red in color, and a few have bands of contrasting colors. The body surface may be smooth or have blunt hairs or brightly colored, hairlike projections.

• LIFE CYCLE The eggs are laid in or under soil, leaf litter, dung, stones, rotting wood, and bark. The young look much like small adults, and molting continues after they have reached sexual maturity.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide. In a variety of habitats, under stones and bark, in leaf litter, soil, dung, and decaying wood.

• KFMARK The dark blue species Anurida maritima is extremely common on seashores in the Northern Hemisphere, where it cats the remains of dead arthropods and snails.

It survives by hiding inside air pockets that form between rocks during high tide.

dull ( (dot ation flat body

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-• short antennae body much longer than it is w ide

NEANURA MUSCORUM is found worldwide, especially in woodland, under rotting wood and in soil. It is also found in caves. This species is able to produce chemicals to deter predatory spiders.

Feeding habits ^



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