Moths and Butterflies

HK 127 KAMI LI KS AND 165,000

_ species of moths and butterflies make up the order Lepidoptera. There is no scientific difference between moths and butterflies. Moths, however, usually fly at night and butterflies during the day, while butterflies have club-ended antennae, which moths usually lack. Both groups have tiny, overlapping scales on the body and wings and multisegmented antennae. The mouthparts usually form a proboscis for taking nectar and other liquids. The selection below places moths first (Arctiidae-Zygaenidae) and butterflies second (Lycaenidae-Pieridae).

Courtship involves displays and odors. Kither sex releases a scent that is carried downwind and picked up by the mate's antennae. Kggs are scattered or laid on the larval food plants. Metamorphosis is complete. The cylindrical larvae (caterpillars), the majority of which are herbivorous, have chewing mouthparts, three pairs of thoracic legs, and a variable number of abdominal prolegs with tiny hooks to grip food plants.

There are four to nine larval stages. The pupa (chrysalis) may be: underground in a silk-lined cell; surrounded by a silk cocoon produced by the mature larva; or naked and attached to the food plant.

Lkimdoptkra

Family AROTIIDAK

ermine moths

Most tiger moths are heavy-bodied and > hairy, often brightly colored in various *

combinations of black, red, yellow, and orange, which warns off predators. v

Krmine moths tend to be pale or white, with small black markings. This family also includes the slender, dull footmen moths.

• LlKK CYCLK Kggs are laid on and around host plants. Many caterpillars in this family eat a wide range of plant matter and the majority of species feed at night. They are very hairy, and many species are poisonous because they eat the leaves of plants such as potato and laburnum, which contain toxic substances. Kootmen species feed by day, and their smooth caterpillars cat lichens.

• OCCIJRKKNCK Worldwide. In well-vegetated areas where host plants occur.

• RKMARK Some arc significant forest and orchard pests.

(:aTKRPILLARS pupate inside a silken cocoon, into which they weave some of their long hairs.

furry white • thorax

distinctive orange S abdomen with black spots

1 dark patches on wings esticmene ac re a is an ermine moth that is found in southeastern Canada and eastern parts of the I IS.

pale orange m ma/gin on hindwings

pale orange m ma/gin on hindwings

Larval feeding habits

Arctia caja, the Garden Tiger Moth, is a colorful species from Kurope, North America, and Asia.

Larval feeding habits

0rder lepidof'tera

Family BOMBYCIDAE

No. of species j qq

0 0

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