Also callcd brush-foots due to the greatly reduced front pair of legs, species of this huge family fly by day and vary enormously in size and color. The upper surfaces of the wings are usually brightly colored, but the undersides have camouflage coloring to protect the butterfly at rest.

• IJI p; CYCLL Females lay groups of round, ribbed eggs on the foliage of trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Caterpillars may feed communally when very young. Nymphalid pupae, which often have warty bumps, hang head down from host plants by a small group of terminal hooks (a eremaster).

• OCCl RRKNCL Worldwide. Usually in flower-filled meadows and woodland clearings.

• UliMARK A very small number of nymphalid species can be pests, causing damage to crops such as sweet potato and soybean.

red, black-spotted hindwings distinctive white spots on formings

VANESSA AtAIANIA, or the Red Admiral, is a widespread species. The caterpillars, usually black with white and yellow spots, feed on nettles and related plants.

unusual rays on hindwings

A III I.ICONH S ERATO, the Small Postman, is native to (Central and South America.

distinctive row of purple blue spots

> IWYMI'IIAEIS ANTIOPA is often called the Cambcrwcll Beauty, referring to the part of south London where the first recorded specimen was found.

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