Parasitil mites

Most of these mites are slightly pear-shaped and yellow-brown, with one or two visible plates on the dorsal surface. In males, the second pair of legs may be stouter and adapted to grasp females when mating.

• I J EE CYCLE Eggs arc laid in organic debris. Nymphs are often found on insects, and many eat small insects, their larvae, and other mites.

• OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide. In dung, wood, and plant debris, on other mites in stored produce, and in mammal, bee, and wasp nests.

shiny, smooth surface •

PARAS II l s species are common and can be found inside the nests of wasps and bees, as well as among decaying wood and leaf litter.

soft, rounded\ or pear-shaped body spider-like orange-red body

TeenANYC Ill's spkciks feed on a wide range of plants and spend the winter deep in leaf litter, emerging in the spring to locate host plants.

short, stout legs long, fine rounded outline

SARCOETES SCAB El mites are the most common cause of mange. There are many varieties within this species, each linked with a particular host.

fine transverse wrinkles on body

0rder Acari

Family sarcoptidak

No. of species j

Feeding habits

0rder Acari

Family TKTRANYOHIIMK

No. of species ^cjq

Scabilis mites

These small mites, also known as mange mites, are a pale, translucent brown. They have short, compact legs and almost spherical bodies that arc slightly flat in profile. Their cheliecrae are adapted for cutting the skin of their animal and human hosts (causing mange in animals and scabies in humans).

• LIFE Cycle Most species feed on the host's epidermis and lymph, leaving tunnels in the skin. Mating occurs on the skin, and females lay up to 50 eggs in the tunnels during their lifetime. The hatched young find shelter and food in hair follicles.

• Occurrence Worldwide, in the skin or hair follicles of mammals, including humans.

• REMARK Infestation causes extreme itching. Scratching leads to hair loss, and serious secondary infections can follow.

Spider mites

I hcsc mites are orange, red, green, or yellow in color, with spiderlike bodies. Large numbers feed on and infest host plants, which may then wither and develop pale blotches. Spider mites produce silk from glands at the front of their body and often cover affected plant parts with a fine webbing.

• Life Cycle: Red, rounded, quite large eggs arc laid on the leaves, twigs, or bark of host plants. The mites live under the leaves, protected from harm by their silk webs.

• occl jrrence Worldwide. On a range of plants, trees, and shrubs.

• remark Many spider mites are significant pests of grasses and other plants. Affected crops include wheat, citrus and other fruit trees, clover, cotton, and coffee. Infestation can seriously affect crop yields.

short, stout legs long, fine rounded outline

SARCOETES SCAB El mites are the most common cause of mange. There are many varieties within this species, each linked with a particular host.

fine transverse wrinkles on body soft, rounded\ or pear-shaped body spider-like orange-red body

TeenANYC Ill's spkciks feed on a wide range of plants and spend the winter deep in leaf litter, emerging in the spring to locate host plants.

0rder ACARI

Family TROMBICILIDAK

No. of species ^ qqq

Chigger mites

I liese mites are pale to mid brown or sometimes red. They arc oval or slightly constricted in the middle, and the body and legs may have quite long hairs, although some have a velvety surface. Chigger mites parasitize mammals (including humans), reptiles, and birds.

• i jit (^¡YCI t Eggs are laid in damp soil and larvae climb grass blades to find passing hosts. Eirst-stagc larvae feed on the outside of mammals, birds, snakes, and lizards, penetrating the skin with sawlike chelicerac to cat lymph and tissue. A few species feed in the tracheal system. When fully fed, the larva drops off, molts, and preys on small arthropods such as springtails (see pp.207-209).

• ()CCl JRRENCE Worldwide. In soil, leaf litter, and animals' burrows, or on hosts.

• REMARK Species that attack humans cause severe itching, dermatitis, and allergic reactions. A few carry scrub typhus from rodents to humans.

body has a few scattered hairs body has a few scattered hairs

Nl.OTROMIilCUIA AUTUMNAUS lives in soil and emerges on to the surface when it is warm and wet. Immature stages bite birds and mammals (including humans).

Feeding habits ft ^

0rder Acari

Family trombii )lll)Ai:

No. of species 2 SO

dense, velvety covering of hairs bumpy sulfate

Velvet mites

Many velvet mites have red or orange bodies that arc extremely hairy, giving them a dense, velvety appearance. The body is not constricted in the middle.

• LIKE Cycle At certain times of year, often after rain, adults emerge from the soil to mate and lay eggs. Some larvae are parasites on insects, such as grasshoppers, and other arthropods.

• OCCl IRRENCE Worldwide, especially numerous in tropical regions. In various terrestrial habitats, from savanna to forests, mostly in or on soil. Some species arc associated with freshwater.

dense, velvety covering of hairs bumpy sulfate

'/'romhidli'm SPECIES are often seen walking over bare ground, especially after heavy rain, when they are forced from the soil in large numbers.

Feeding habits

0rder Acari

Family varroidak

No. of species 5

varroa mites

I ypieally, varroa mites arc pale tan in color and broader than they are long, with smooth, oval, slightly convex bodies. They parasitize bees.

• like Cycle Kggs arc laid in bees' brood cells and the nymphs feed off the bee larvae. Adult mites attach themselves to adult bees, in order to feed off them and as a way of dispersing.

• occl kren( ie Worldwide. Where hosts occur.

- smooth, oval outline

Varroa ri Rs/ci \

attaches itself to the bodies of both wild and domestic honeybees.

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