Pselaphid beetles

I lie abdomen of these small brown beetles is considerably broader than the pronotum and the

• I J EE CYCLE Little is known about the life cycle of most species. Adults, and presumably larvae as well, cat mites, small insects, and other invertebrates.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide. Under bark, in rotting vegetation and wood, and in moss, leaf litter, caves, and soil. Some species live in ant colonics.

short elytra leave • last abdomen exposed segment of antennae W

enlarged

< batrisodis di'iaporti lives in association with Lasius brunneus ants, in dead wood.

> ryhaxis longicornis is European and lives in moss clumps near pools and bogs.

> ryhaxis longicornis is European and lives in moss clumps near pools and bogs.

short elytra leave • last abdomen exposed segment of antennae W

enlarged

< batrisodis di'iaporti lives in association with Lasius brunneus ants, in dead wood.

I ,ARVAE are often slightly flattened in shape.

Larval feeding habits

0rder COLKOPTKRA

Family pyROCHROIDAK

Pyrochroid beetles

Also called fire-colored beetles because of their distinctive black, red, and yellow coloring, most species are narrow and soft-bodied. The eyes are large in relation to the head, and the segments of the antennae are serrated or have long processes.

• LlEE CYCLE Eggs are laid under the bark of dead wood, where the larvae develop, eating threads of fungi or small creatures.

• OCCt IRRENCE Mostly in Northern Hemisphere and Southeast Asia. In woodland and forests.

Larval feeding habits

Family pyROCHROIDAK

long processes on each segment of antennae pyrochroa SPECIES, or cardinal beetles, are found on flowers and tree trunks or stumps. Most have quite flat bodies.

long processes on each segment of antennae pyrochroa SPECIES, or cardinal beetles, are found on flowers and tree trunks or stumps. Most have quite flat bodies.

Larval feeding habits ^

0rder COLKOPTKRA

Family Kl UPMM IOKM )A!.

No. of species 450

Wedge-siiaped beetles

These hump-backed, black-and-orangish beetles are described as wedge-shaped because of their extremely blunt-ended abdomens. The wings may be either full-sized or short.

• IJEE CYCLE Eggs are laid where host insects visit the larvae are parasitic on cockroaches or wood-boring beetle, bee, and wasp larvae.

Young larvae may have legs. j AKVA|) ()t

Later stages are maggotlike. car, sta^cs

• OCCl IRRENCE Worldwide. y may |iavc |cgs In a variety of habitats where insect hosts can be found.

to grip the host insect.

to grip the host insect.

No. of species 450

" ♦ wedge-shaped body me tou a s r \R \ 1)0XI S is the only British species in this family. Its larvae are parasites of Vespula wasps and their larvae.

0rder COLKOI'TKRA

Family SCARABAKIDAK

Scarabs

bright green, shiny, met a I He coloring

No. of species 15 500

bright green, shiny, met a I He coloring

shovel-shaped head

V MlEOEONTHA MEEOEONTHA, the Cockchafer, is nocturnal and often attracted to lighis. Related species are called June bugs or Summer (lhafcrs.

metallic sheen

I he huge family Scarabaeidae comprises several major subfamilies, including dung beetles or scarabs, giant hercules beetles, and leaf chafers. Extremely varied in shape and size, their colors range from black to metallic blues and greens. All species have antennae that end in a kind of club, made up of several movable plates. The males of many species have horns, which they use when fighting over females.

• LIFE CYCLE Eggs arc laid - and larvae can be found -in soil, the dung of herbivorous mammals, rotten wood, and decaying matter. Some adult dung beetles use their hindlegs to roll fresh dung away in balls before burying the balls and laying their eggs inside. Others bury dung where it is.

• OCCl IRRENCE Worldwide. On dung, carrion, decaying matter, fungi, and vegetation; under bark; and in the burrows of vertebrates or in ant and termite nests.

• REMARK The dung or scarab beetle was a major religious symbol in Ancient Egypt. Mummification may have been an imitation of its pupal stage, protecting the body during its transformation and ultimate rebirth.

last abdominal segments showing

> P11 s/oris RISI'I.ENDENS is found in Central America. stout hind femora

Many brightly colored species such as this arc much sought after by unscrupulous collectors.

A I* HAN hl S DEMON is a Central American species whose larvae develop inside the dung of large herbivores.

strong shovel-shaped head membranous hindwings metallic sheen

A KHE I'EH AEGYETIORUM, found in Africa, rolls dung balls as large as 2in (5cm) away from dung pats to bury. This large, colorful beetle was probably the first to be revered in Ancient Egypt.

antenna I club made up o f movable plates •

V MlEOEONTHA MEEOEONTHA, the Cockchafer, is nocturnal and often attracted to lighis. Related species are called June bugs or Summer (lhafcrs.

shiny, golden - coloring purple sheen on pronotum front legs especially stout, for digging purple sheen on pronotum front legs especially stout, for digging

LARVAK arc white, (^-shaped grubs with wcll-devcloped mandibles.

A COEHOPUANEIS ¡ANCIEER comes from South America. This species buries pieces of dead animals, on which it then rears its larvae.

front of head has prominent teeth <

shiny, strongly toothed front matte black front of head has prominent teeth <

shiny, strongly toothed front

matte black tibial clan tarsus tibial clan tarsus

A SCARAHAEUS CATER ATI IS, found in eastern Africa, is attracted to the dung of large herbivores, such as buffalo and giraffes. Females stay in the nest to look after the young when they emerge from within the brooding dung balls.

ACHALC OSOM i i// iv is one of three known species from eastern Asia. Males use their horns to grapple with each other in contests over females.

0rder COLKOPTKRA

Family SlLPHIDAE

Carrion beetles

Many of these flat, soft-bodied species are black or brown, often with bright yellow, red, or orange markings. In some species, the elytra are shortened, exposing several abdominal segments.

• life Cycle Adults and larvae arc mostly scavengers, eating rotting animal or plant material. Species of the genus Nicrophorus (sexton or burying beetles) bury corpses of small animals and lay their eggs on the buried carcass. In some species, adults may feed their larvae regurgitated carrion.

• occurrence Worldwide, but mainly in the Northern Hemisphere. On the ground near carcasses, dung, and rotting fungi.

Larval are flat and elongate, with a broad pronotum and small head.

elytra cover most of abdomen flat, oval broad body elytra cover most of abdomen flat, oval broad body

SlU'ha americana is a native of North America. It has a broad shape and fairly bright coloration. Like all carrion beetles, it is quickly attracted to carrion by the odor.

Length M¿-lXin (0.4-4.5cm), most under Win (2cm)

Larval feeding habits ^

0rder COLKOPTKRA

Family STAPHYLINIDAK

No. of species 29 ()()()

matte black all over •

rove beetles

Most of these hectics are small and smooth, with elongate, parallel-sided, brown or black bodies. Some may have a sculptured body surface, bright colors, or body hairs. They all have short elytra, and a highly mobile, exposed abdomen. Small species tend to be diurnal; larger species are usually nocturnal.

• Like Cycle Eggs arc commonly laid in soil, fungi, and leaf litter. Most larvae prey on insects and other arthropods, and usually live in the same place as the adults.

• Occurrence Worldwide, in soil, fungi, leaf-litter, decaying plants, and carrion. Some are found in ant or termite colonies or in the fur of some mammals.

matte black all over •

flexible abdomen •

flat head and flat first segment of thorax •

S'/a 1*11 yijn iis oeens, or the I)evil s Coach I lorse, is a large, black European species. If disturbed or threatened, it curves its abdomen up in a scorpionlike threat posture.

coveting of black and yellow coveting of black and yellow

Larval arc elongate, with short antennae and ecrci.

Emus mums is a distinctive, large species, native to southern Europe. It likes to hunt prey that feeds on carrion or dung.

Larval feeding habits

Larval arc elongate, with short antennae and ecrci.

Emus mums is a distinctive, large species, native to southern Europe. It likes to hunt prey that feeds on carrion or dung.

Larval feeding habits

0rder coleoptera

Family TKNEBRIONIDAE

No. of species j 7 qqq

Darkling beetles

I hese beetles are mostly black or brown in color. Some species, however, have colored markings or white elytra. There is a great variation in shape within this family, from parallel-sided and blunt-ended to large and broadly oval. The body may be smooth and shiny or dull and roughly textured.

• LlEE CYCLE The eggs arc scattered singly or in groups in and around the larval feeding-matter. These beetles are scavengers and mostly eat decaying vegetable or animal material; some larvae will eat plant roots. Adults of many species arc able to produce a foul-smelling secretion, used for defense, from special glands on the abdomen.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide. In all terrestrial habitats, especially desert and arid regions.

• REMARK. Some species can be pests. The family includes flour beetles - which may damage stored, dried foods such as flour, grain, and cereals - and others that damage coffee or mushroom crops.

fro tig legs

A Hi APS Ml JCRONOTA is one of six similar, nonflying European species. Called cellar or churchyard beetles, they favor dark places.

fro tig legs

^aatjcaca^

1 ARVAP are elongate and cylindrical with tough bodies and short legs.

A Hi APS Ml JCRONOTA is one of six similar, nonflying European species. Called cellar or churchyard beetles, they favor dark places.

flat expansions of elytra and prottofum oval body a it ten tute usually have / / • segments flat expansions of elytra and prottofum

short, strong

> brown coloration

TENEliRH) MOEITOR, or the Yellow Mealworm Beetle, is found across the world in stored grains and flour.

()¡\) macris cwnmiri .wis has elytra with no pigmentation. Combined with its long legs, this allows it to be active during the day in its native Namib Desert.

oval body

()¡\) macris cwnmiri .wis has elytra with no pigmentation. Combined with its long legs, this allows it to be active during the day in its native Namib Desert.

A hk1aecs sci1serratcs, or the Pie I )ish Beetle, has a seedlike appearance that protects it from predators. It is native to Australia.

short, strong

> brown coloration

TENEliRH) MOEITOR, or the Yellow Mealworm Beetle, is found across the world in stored grains and flour.

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