Pteromalid wasps

Most of these slim to (|iiite robust wasps arc black, metallic blue, metallic green, or green- or yellow-brown. The thorax is often dimpled. Viewed from the side, the smooth abdomen is frequently triangular in females and oblong in males.

• IJFE CYCLE Pteromalids have quite varied life cycles. The larvae may be endo- or ectoparasitoids or hyperparasitoids. Most species use the larvae or pupae of flies, beetles, wasps, fleas, butterflies, and moths as hosts. Females may have to drill through plant tissue to reach gall-forming, leaf-mining, or stem-boring hosts. Some species lay just a single egg, but others lay hundreds of eggs if the host is large enough.

• OCCl 1RRENCF Worldwide. In a wide variety of habitats, wherever hosts are found.

• RFMARK Some species are used to control populations of harmful crop pests.

larvae are pale and grublike, with a small head. Some have small bumps on the upper or lower body surface.

met a I lie green head and thorax met a I lie green head and thorax

larvae are pale and grublike, with a small head. Some have small bumps on the upper or lower body surface.

peeroma/ais species are common parasitoids. Their larvae develop inside the larvae and pupae of a wide range of insects.

Larval feeding habits

0rder HYMKNOPTERA

Family scklionidak

No. of species ^ qqq

0 0

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