Scale insects

Members of this superfamily vary widely in coloration. The sedentary, wingless females arc flat and elongate or oval. Their bodies may be covered with waxy secretions that form a soft or scalelike covering. The males, which are uncommon, look very different and may be winged or wingless.

• life cycle Nymphs and adult females are sap-suckers. Reproduction can be asexual or sexual, and the reproductive potential of many species is immense. Females lay eggs, commonly on host plants, or give birth to nymphs. Newly hatched nymphs have legs and disperse. Later stages may lose their legs and become sedentary, like the females.

• occljrrfncf Worldwide, especially in subtropical and tropical regions. On host plants in a wide variety of habitats.

• remark Many species are significant pests of crops such as citrus trees and coffee.

dark, scalelike body insects •— clustered around leaf veins dark, scalelike body insects •— clustered around leaf veins

A SAIS SET/A NIGRA is a widespread pest of cassava plants and trees and also attacks nutmeg, cinnamon, and teak.

<Planoc()(:(:i s ceeri, the common (litrus Mealy Bug, also attacks other crops, including coffee, guava, and soybeans.

A Margarodes SPECIES produce cystlike nymphs called "ground pearls," which live underground and attack the roots of grasses.

white, powdery covering white, powdery covering m ' %

A Cerococcus quercus frequently causes great damage to ornamental trees in North America.

DACTYEorirs tomentosl 's has been used to control cactus weed in parts of South Africa.

Length (0.1-3cm), most under Xin (1cm)

Feeding habits 0

0rder HEMIPTERA

Family PSYLLIDAE

No. of species j jqO

- wings held

.It JMPING PLANT LICE »m when at

I hese variously colored bugs look like small leaf- rest •

hoppers (sec p.%), but with longer antennae. The two pairs of oval wings are held, rooflike, over the small black body. The head has a short, three-segmented beak. spots on

• I .IFF CYCLF Females lay stalked eggs on or in • plants, and some may cause gall formation or rolling of leaves. The flat nymphs develop wing pads as they get older.

• OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide. On any suitable host plant, in a wide variety of habitats.

• REMARK Some species are significant plant pests.

cacoi's) e/a pyricoia, the Pear Psyllid, is a significant pest of pear trees throughout the Northern I lemisphere.

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