Stem sawflies

These sawflies are slim and elongate. Many species are black in color, with yellowish thoracic markings and abdominal bands.

• Like: Cycle Typically, single eggs are deposited inside the stems of host grasses, shrubs, and trees. The larvae burrow downward, and pupation occurs inside a cocoon within the stem.

• occt jrrence Mainly in the Northern I Icmisphcre. In pastures, meadows, and cereal crops.

cephus SPECIES are slender and have long antennae with 16 to 30 segments. Larvae of all species burrow into grasses and can damage cereal crops.

threadlike antennae front of head shiny square pronotum narrow wings head as wide bands on as thorax abdomen

• laterally flattened orna trow abdomen

Hartigia linearis, like all members of its genus, bores into the stems of rose plants.

larvae are slender grubs with rudimentary thoracic legs and no abdominal prolcgs.

black femur yellow tibiae

slightly flattened abdomen

A PACHYLOSTICA VI01 A is found only in South America, where its larvae probably eat tree foliage.

flat body

broad head

Order HYMKNOPTKRA

Family ClMBICIDAK

No. of species j^q

Length x_l%in(2-3cm)

Larval feeding habits

Order HYMKNOPTKRA

Family pAMPHILHI)AK

No. of species 200

Length Xin (1-1.5cm)

Larval feeding habits

Order HYMKNOPTKRA

Family PnRfJIOAK

No. of species q

Leaf-rolling sawflies

These sawflies have a broad head and a flat body. Most species are strongly built and arc black with yellow markings.

• life Cycle Kggs are laid in plant tissue. The larvae feed under silk webs or in foliage, singly or in groups.

• Occurrence

Northern I Icmisphcre. In trees and shrubs in a LARVAK do not have variety of habitats. abdominal prolegs.

clmbigii) sawflies

These large sawflies may resemble hairless bees. Many are fat-bodied, with slightly flat abdomens. Most are black or yellowish and black. The antennae have fewer than seven segments, and the last one is swollen.

• life Cycle Eggs arc laid in host plants. Larvae feed externally on foliage, and pupation takes place in a cocoon.

• Occurrence Northern

1 Icmisphcre, South America, and eastern \ Asia. Wherever host plants arc found.

slightly flattened abdomen

A PACHYLOSTICA VI01 A is found only in South America, where its larvae probably eat tree foliage.

ClMBEX EE MO RA'HJS is a fat b()(ly heavy-bodied British species whose larvae feed on birch trees.

flat body

Acantholyda eosti calls was once found only in Scottish pine woods but is now found in conifer plantations further south.

broad head

pergid sawflies

These fairly robust species have a rounded abdomen. The antennae may be simple, branched, or sawlike.

• LIFE CYCLE Eggs are laid in plant tissue. The larvae typically feed in groups on foliage. They can produce chemicals to repel predators.

• OCCURRENCE Southern

I Icmisphcre, except Africa. Wherever host trees, especially eucalyptus, occur.

• REMARK Several species in Australia arc pests in eucalyptus forests and can cause total defoliation.

perga dorsaeis is typical of Australian eucalyptus-feeding species whose larvae can be serious pests of these trees.

antennae end in " small clubs orange marks

LARVAK have short prolegs and may have warning coloration.

< • dark leading edge o f forming stout thorax terminal

. terminal spine

LARVAE are slow to develop. They have very short thoracic legs and no prolegs on the abdomen.

large, black-and-i yellow body matte-purple coloration large, yellow patch behind each eye

ovipositor

No. of species jqq

Family SlRICIDAE

head widest behind eyes

distinctive, smoky brown wings black rear abdomen, with yellow-orange, tail-like apex ovipositor

0rder HYMENOPTKRA

Family SlRICIDAE

No. of species jqq terminal ovipositor horntails

Also known as wood wasps, these large sawflies are reddish brown, black and yellow, or metallic blue-purple. The common name refers to a spine at the end of the abdomen.

• life Cycle The females drill into the wood of live or fallen trees to lay one egg at a time and infect the tree with a rot-producing fungus. The larvae burrow into heartwood and cat the fungus and the wood. Pupation occurs in a cocoon of silk and chewed wood.

• occl jrrence Worldwide. In central black bar coniferous and deciduous woodland. / in some abdominal segments head widest behind eyes black abdominal bands

, shiny, blue-purple coloration

A TREM EX COld! MBA is a widespread North American species. Its larvae usually burrow into the wood of maple and oak trees.

. brownish tinge to outer margins of wings

. terminal spine

LARVAE are slow to develop. They have very short thoracic legs and no prolegs on the abdomen.

V UROCERIJS (¿¡(¿AS, the Common I lorntail or Giant Woodwasp, may look dangerous but is actually harmless. Females are often seen, but males are more elusive.

large, black-and-i yellow body black rear abdomen, with yellow-orange, tail-like apex matte-purple coloration large, yellow patch behind each eye distinctive, smoky brown wings head broad behind the eyes ovipositor

A Si REX NOCTIEIO is found in the Northern Hemisphere. Its larvae burrow into coniferous trees. The female is shown here -males are less metallic and have an orange-red abdomen.

0rder HYMKNOPTKRA

Family TKNTIIREDINIDAK

No. of species ^ qqq darh patch on head

• (7V/// ryv.v yellow tarsi and tibiae yellow-tinged •— wings

LARVAE are mostly caterpillar-like, with a round head and abdominal prolcgs.

• dark rear abdomen

Tenth redo spkciis are large, aggressive predators as adults. They are red, brown, yellow, or black in color.

dark head dark forewing

o range-red body tibial spurs yellow-tinged wings relatively long,

wasplike, black-ana-yellow abdominal stripes yellow-tinged •— wings darh patch on head

LARVAE are mostly caterpillar-like, with a round head and abdominal prolcgs.

< tenthredo scrophijiar/ae is a wasp-mimicking species, found in Europe and Asia. Its larvae feed on mullein and figwort plants.

yellow tarsi and tibiae

• dark rear abdomen

Common sawflies

I hese sawflies are highly variable in both their appearance and habits. They may be brown, black, or green, brightly colored, or even wasplike.

The sexes may be differently colored.

• life Cycle Females use their ovipositor to cut slits in the leaves, twigs, and shoots of host plants and lay eggs inside. The larvae feed on the outside of the plants and arc solitary with camouflage coloring or gregarious with warning coloration. Some mine leaves or make galls. Pupation occurs inside a silk cocoon, either under the ground or in leaf litter. •()<:< :i JRREN(:E Worldwide, except in New Zealand, especially in northern and cool temperate regions. In gardens, pastures, and woodland.

• REMARK Many species are pests, causing serious damage to fruit and vegetable crops and forest trees.

wasplike, black-ana-yellow abdominal stripes

Tenth redo spkciis are large, aggressive predators as adults. They are red, brown, yellow, or black in color.

yellow-tinged wings relatively long, dark head tibial spurs

A doeerus irll'eicati's is a European species. Its larvae feed on the foliage of rushes that belong to the genus J uncus.

dark forewing o range-red body

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