Stick insects

Also called walking sticks, these night-feeding insects arc usually brown or green and often spiny or warty. Females are frequently wingless and males are often winged. The wings may be short, or short, tough forewings may protect much larger, membranous, fan-shaped hindwings.

• I AI I CY( ;i ,E Eggs are deposited from the abdomen. They are laid in soil or stuck to plants. The tiny first-stage nymphs usually rely on camouflage coloration for protection.

• OCCl IRRENCE Mainly in tropical areas and some warm, temperate regions. Among vegetation or on the foliage of shrubs and trees.

• REMARK Defense tactics include using noises, smells, postures, and coloration, or shedding legs if seized by predators (nymphs' legs may grow back).

mottled brown i coloration slender front legs threadlike curve at base of front leg allows it to be held at s ide of head

square head

\ short prothorax

» distinctive ovipositor

» long metathorax

• spitted, ridged leg segments

I'll \K\.\ci \ SIMvCIKS are extremely slender and sticklike insects. They hold their legs close to their body when disturbed. A wingless female is shown here. This genus is found in India.

Eirycantua cai.carata males (shown here) have large, sharp spines on their hindlegs. These legs, which are used as fishhooks in Papua New Guinea, have a strong reflex that can trap a human finger. Both sexes are wingless.

6s • insîxrrs short antennae very small, rounded head veinlike marking.1

margin of forewings looks like leaf m idrib when wings are folded

brown camouflage coloration heart-shaped pronotum wings _ shorter than abdomen expansions of leg segments, with small teeth leaf like leg expansions abdomen of leaf insect

No. of species jq

long, slightly hairy antennae in males forewings much smaller in male than in female

* transparent hindwings

0rder Phasmatodka

Family pHYLLHDAK

No. of species jq

Leaf insects lat, expanded abdomens, extended leg segments, and brown or green coloration all give these insects a resemblance to living or dead leaves. When they are at rest, their veined forewings may cover their transparent ' hindwings to complete the disguise, made even more effective by surface texturing, blotches of color, and an ability to sway in the breeze. The antennae are short and smooth in females, longer and slightly hairy in males.

• LlFK CYCLK The seedlike eggs are dropped on to the ground, where they hatch. The young nymphs feed nocturnally.

• OCCURRENCE Seychelles, Southeast Asia, Northern Queensland, and New Guinea. In any well-vegetated habitat.

short antennae very small, rounded head wings _ shorter than abdomen

PHYL L II 1/ SPE< IIS in general are well known for their gentle side-to-side swaying motion, imitating the way in which foliage rustics in a breeze.

leaf like leg expansions

< Phyllium scythe is common in Southeast Asia. This is the largest genus in the family, some of which are brown-colored and mimic dead leaves.

brown camouflage coloration heart-shaped pronotum abdomen of leaf insect veinlike marking.1

long, slightly hairy antennae in males forewings much smaller in male than in female

* transparent hindwings

<phyllhjm bloc iji ata is kept by some people as a pet. It is usually easy to rear, as long as it is kept in warm conditions.

expansions of leg segments, with small teeth flat, leaflike abdomen margin of forewings looks like leaf m idrib when wings are folded

Earwigs

T^ UK ORDKK I)KRMAP I KRA is relatively small. It is divided into 10 families, containing about 1,900 species. Commonly known as earwigs, these relatively flat insects have short, veinless forewings that protect the large, fan-shaped hindwings. The abdomen is mobile and telescopic, with a pair of forcepslike appendages that are usually straight in females and curved in males.

Metamorphosis is incomplete. Females typically lay their eggs in soil, although some parasitic species give birth to live nymphs. The females show a high degree of maternal care, for example, licking fungal spores off the eggs and guarding them from predators. This care continues for some time after the eggs hatch. Females feed their nymphs by bringing food into the nest or by regurgitating part of their own meals. Eventually, the nymphs have to disperse - as they grow, the mother starts to regard them as a potential meal.

Earwigs molt up to five times. Apart from increasing in size and gaining antennal segments with each molt, they look similar to their parents.

Earwigs like confined spaces. Their name may refer to the popular belief that they enter human ears (they rarely do), or to the shape of their hindwings.

carc/nophora sim-cm s are found mostly in South America, with some in North America and the Ear East. The species seen here has both fore- and hindwings.

hinc/wings folded under forewings

forewings

> I'itanoiahis colossi a is the largest known earwig.

The genus Ufa no/a bis contains four species, which are native to Australia.

pa ir of stout forceps at end of abdomen

0rder Dkrmaptkra

Family CARCINOIMIORIDAK

No. of species ^qq

0 0

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