Males of this I amily arc small and dark, with bulging, berrylike eyes. The forewings are tiny and straplike; the hindwings large and fanlike. Females are wingless and legless and never leave the body of their host.

• LieE CYCLE Most stylopid species parasitize mining or sweat bees or solitary or vespid wasps (see pp. 178-93). After mating, eggs hatch inside the female stylopid. The active triungulin larvae then leave the female through a special brood passage and crawl onto flowers to wait for the next host.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide. In various wcll-vegetated habitats, wherever hosts arc found. Males are free-living, whereas the females of the species live in the bodies of certain bees and wasps.

• REMARK The sexual organs of the parasitized hosts degenerate and, in some cases, there may be a reversal of secondary sexual characters, so that males look like females and vice versa.

branched berry ¡ike eyes

Most huh h i.mai i un abdomen of most bee female stylopid inside host bee projects partly from between segments of the bee's abdomen

Larvae are very small, with a pair of bristles at the end of the abdomen that they use to jump.


Sty lops SPECIES have a highly distinctive shape. They have an interesting biology that has led to them being used as the emblem of a major entomological society.

hindwings have slightly twisted appearance

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