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l)EINACRIDA RIJGOSA, probably once common across New Zealand, now survives only on islands where introduced animals, such as mice, are absent or controlled.

two rows of sharp tibiaI spines short

—• hindlegs much bigger than other two pairs

, ovipositor

Order QRTHOPTERA

Family RhaPIIIDOPHORIDAK

No. of species 500

Feeding habits ^ ^

Order ORTHOPTKRA

Family STENOPELMATIDAE No< of species 40

King crickets

Some members of this family are known as stone or Jerusalem crickets or wetas. Most are large, chunky, wingless insects, with a large head and relatively short antennae. The legs are stout, and the tibiae have rows of strong spines that are used for digging. Most species are very dark brown or black. Adults emerge from their underground burrows only after darkness falls.

• LIFE CYCLE Eggs are laid in soil. King crickets may have nine or ten nymphal stages.

• ()( XU JRRENCE Warm tropical and temperate regions. In rotten wood and underground.

l)EINACRIDA RIJGOSA, probably once common across New Zealand, now survives only on islands where introduced animals, such as mice, are absent or controlled.

two rows of sharp tibiaI spines short

—• hindlegs much bigger than other two pairs

, ovipositor

Cave crickets

Many of these hump-backed, squat, wingless crickets have very long hindlegs and extremely long antennae, which arc waved backward and forward in the dark to sense the environment and approaching predators. They are drably colored, usually brown or gray. Some highly cave-adapted species have reduced eyes and soft bodies.

• LIFE Cycle Eggs are laid in the substrate of the cave, and the nymphs search for food as soon as they hatch. Nymphs of some species eat plant life at cave entrances.

• OCCl JRRENCE Widespread, especially in warmer regions. In caves and other humid locations, under stones and logs distinctive humped back

DlESTRAMMENA MARMORATA has very long hindlegs with thick femora and distinctive mottling.

PHOLEOGRYLLUS GEERTSI is a species that is native to northern Africa and parts of southern Europe.

—• very long antennae for detecting predators

CRICKETS AND ORASSI IOIMM RS • 63

uneven outline of wings increases resemblance to leave

slender, sickle-shaped oz npositor for laying eggs in plant tissue ovipositor bright green coloration

Family TKT TKJONIIDAK

Katydids

Also called bush crickets or long-horned grasshoppers, katydids are named after a species whose song sounds like the phrase "katy did." Most are large brown or green insects with wings that slope over the sides of their bodies. Many species mimic leaves, bark, or lichen, and some flash bright hindwing colors to startle predators. • LlEE CYOLIi Male katydids sing to attract mates, using a file-and-scraper system at the base of the forewings. Females lay rows of eggs in plants or soil, and there may be five or six nymphal stages. • OCCl RRENCE Worldwide, mainly in tropical regions. On vegetation and in forests, from ground level to the canopy.

uneven outline of wings increases resemblance to leave slender, sickle-shaped oz npositor for laying eggs in plant tissue

\ S \THROPH\ III 1 A'I (¡OS I. from India, mimics the appearance of bark and is very difficult to see when at rest.

V METRIOPTERA liRACH) PTERA, also known as the bog Bush Cricket, lives in damp meadows and is widespread across Europe.

very short wings in both sexes •

downward-pointing mouthparts m

A () mm atopie ra rictieoeia comes from Brazil. I .ike many bush crickets, it mimics dead leaves and keeps very still when predators are close at hand.

adults of thi pedes have hort wings creamy brown coloration to blend with bark

V Lei'Toe/d es ri/nctatissima, or the Speckled Bush Cricket, is commonly found in bushes, trees, and grassland. The female has a large, swordlike ovipositor.

Order QktHOPTKRA

Family ACRIDIDAK

Feeding habits 0

Ou i nor

Family K^MASTACIDAK

Grasshoppers

Most grasshopper specics have camouflage coloring and patterning, although some have bright "warning" coloration and produce noxious chemicals. The antennae are always short. The females, which are nearly always larger than the males, do not have a conspicuous ovipositor.

• LlLI CYCLL Males sing during the day to attract females. After mating, egg masses are laid in the ground. The eggs arc protected by a foamy substance that is secreted by the female.

• OCCUKKLNCL Worldwide, especially in warm areas. On the ground and among vegetation.

• KKMAKR Many grasshoppers arc agricultural pests. The most notorious pest species - locusts -can form huge swarms that cause widespread devastation.

Sciiistocirca am (¡aria, the African Desert Locust, is one of the world's most destructive insects. Vast swarms can devour up to 1 ()(),()()() tons of food in a day.

o strong hind tegs for jumping and kicking large, membranous < hindwings toughened forewings short antennae saddle-shaped pronotum *

Monkey-hoppers

I he head of these slim insects is long and set at an angle to the thorax. Many arc brightly colored, while some resemble leaves or sticks. The hindlegs arc thin and elongate, with distinctive spines on the lower half of the tibiae. At rest, many species sit with their hindlegs splayed out sideways.

• Lll L CYCLL Mating involves the male on top of the female. Kggs are laid in the ground or in detritus.

• ()CCl IRKENCK Southeast Asia, Africa, India, and North and South America, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In a variety of habitats, including woodland, forests, and grassland.

wings held at unusual angle la/ge hindlegs with strong - spines on tibiae pronotum w elongate head chororrn \ (¡alunaci 1 s has the brown coloration and leaflike appearance that provides effective camouflage.

Feeding habits

CKICkl I S AND CiRASSI IOPPKRS • 65

thick, rod-like antennae are shorter than head and pronotum combined stout thorax with warty bumps and projections

bright red coloring on hindwings can be flashed at predators

strong hindlegs

tapered pronotum extends back over abdomen

Order ORTHOPTKRA

Family pyRCiOMORPHIIMK

No. of species ^qq

Length 3V4in (1-8.5cm)

Feeding habits

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