Tijssock moths

I hese moths look similar to noetuid moths (see p. 165), but they are more hairy. Most are dull-colored, but the tropical species can be colorful. Males are slightly smaller than the females, which arc sometimes wingless. Adults lack a proboscis, and do not feed.

• LlFF CYCLF Females lay their eggs in batches on the bark of host trees and shrubs, often incorporating some of the irritant hairs from the end of the abdomen as a protective device against predators. The caterpillars, which may be brightly colored, feed in groups on foliage.

• OCCl JRRFNCF Worldwide. In many habitats, including hedgerows and coniferous or deciduous woods.

• REMARK The Gypsy and Brown-tail moths arc serious pests of a range of trees and shrubs across the Northern I lemisphere. Outbreaks of these species can cause great damage, defoliating large areas and killing trees, distinctive I -shaped m mark on forewings hairy hittdwing margins

- large to It oj irritant han s used to cover and protect eggs

CATERPILLARS arc very hairy - commonly with brushlike tufts of hairs on their back and sides.

males have feathery antennae broad hairy body white, crescent-shaped spot only the male has wings

• black dots on wing margins pure white wings with no markings lAMANTRIA DISPAR, the Gypsy Moth, is a native of Europe and Asia hut was introduced to North America to produce inexpensive silk. I lowever, the moth escaped and became a serious pest.

Male tuft of hairs

0rder LEPIDOPTERA

Family NOCTUIDAE

No. of species 22 000

noctuid moths pointed wing-

pointed wing-

These medium-sized nocturnal moths have fairly narrow forewings and broad hindwings. Noctuid moths have basically dull coloring, although the hindwings of some species are brightly colored and patterned.

• I JFK CYCLIC Kemales lay eggs singly or in groups, at the base of host plants or in the soil. Caterpillars feed after dark and most attack their host plants, chewing or boring their way inside.

• OCCIJRRKNCK Worldwide. In most habitats.

• RKMAKK These nocturnal moths have thoracic hearing organs for detecting bats. Many species are serious pests, between them damaging almost all the world's important crops. One species (sec right), evolved from a fruit-piercing moth, sucks blood.

caeyptra el 1st riga 7/1, or the Vampire Moth, sucks blood and has barbed mouthparts that it uses to pierce the skin of mammals. It is found in India and Southeast Asia.

xanthopastis iimais, the Spanish Moth, is found in tropical North and South America. Its caterpillars feed on narcissus and fig species.

distinctive black wing markings

dark, wavy line near margin of hindwings forming has camouflage coloring and dark fringe black, hairy body

spodoptera ex1gua is also known as the Small Mottled Willow Moth. It has a worldwide distribution and is a serious pest of cotton, corn, and rice.

dark, wavy line near margin of hindwings agrot/s 1ps1lon, the Dark Sword-grass Moth, is found throughout the world. Its caterpillars attack cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, and other crops.

Caterpillars of most species feed on their host plants at night.

tiny black dots along margin of forewings forming has camouflage coloring and dark fringe black, hairy body

» irregular brown band hee/othis arm1gera, or the Old World Bollworm, is a serious pest of cotton, corn, and tomatoes. It is found across the Eastern Hemisphere.

translucent hindwings with grayish spots along brown line near-

border xanthopastis iimais, the Spanish Moth, is found in tropical North and South America. Its caterpillars feed on narcissus and fig species.

distinctive black wing markings

0rder EKPIDOPTKRA

Family NOTODONTIDAK

No. of species ^ qaq

No. of species ^ qaq hairy thorax camouflage wing

i yellow margin on hindwings

\ tuft o f bright orangish hairs

abdomen darker at apex

white hindwings ■

abdomen darker at apex

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