Tsetse flies

I hese brown or gray flies feed on animal or human blood and cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. At rest, they cross their wings over their abdomen. • LlFF CYCLE Females produce eggs singly. The larva hatches inside the female's body and feeds on glandular secretions. Once deposited on the ground, it pupates immediately and the adult j j j Arvae ire emerges after four weeks. j |ar^c as rhc

Occurrence Africa, in V j adults when wooded savanna and bush. mature.

GEOSSIIWA MORS PEAKS is one of the species that transmits the trypanosome parasite - the cause of sleeping sickness.

needlelike stout body

Larval feeding habits

Order l)1PTKKA

Family HlPPOBOSCIDAK

head appears • partly sunk into thorax

GRATA ERIN A PALLIDA is a parasite of swifts. Three-quarters of all louse fly species parasitize birds.

louse flies

These stout, flat flics have a short proboscis and strong, clawed legs for gripping hair or feathers. They are parasites, feeding on the blood of mammals and birds.

• life Cycle Larvae develop inside the female. Laid when mature, the larvae pupate on their hosts.

• occl jrrfnce Worldwide. On host animals, including cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and birds.

head appears • partly sunk into thorax

Larvae are white or yellow. When fully grown, they are fat and round.

Larvae are white or yellow. When fully grown, they are fat and round.

GRATA ERIN A PALLIDA is a parasite of swifts. Three-quarters of all louse fly species parasitize birds.

Family MUSCIDAE

No. of species jqq

House flies

Most house Hies are drably colored, with dark bristles and long, slender legs. The mouthparts are spongelike, for lapping fluids, or piercing, for sucking blood.

• life Cycle Masses of eggs arc laid in excrement, rotting matter, fungi, birds' nests, water, or plants. The larvae (maggots) grow fast and can pupate in just over a week.

• occl jrrence Worldwide. On flowers, excrement, and rotting matter; blood-sucking species are found near their hosts

• REMARK. I louse flies may carry infections, including typhoid and cholera, v

ciiiiii^

Larva k mostly taper at the head and arc blunt at the rear.

large eyes orangish patches at stele of abdomen large eyes ciiiiii^

Larva k mostly taper at the head and arc blunt at the rear.

orangish patches at stele of abdomen ml jsc a domestic a breeds in fermenting organic matter and spreads a variety of diseases, including cholera, typhoid, dysentery, and gastroenteritis.

Length yUt_y,\n (0.2-1.2cm)

Larval feeding habits 0 ^

Order OlI'TERA

Family MYDIDAE

No. of species icq

last segment of long antennae swollen or i clubbed

Mydas flies any of these flies mimic spider-hunting wasps and some mimic hoverflies (see p. 153 and pp. 188-89). They are typically smooth-bodied and black, although the tips of the wings and antennae may be orange. Adult mouthparts are weak. The males arc often territorial.

• LIFE Cycle Females lay their eggs in soil or rotting wood. The larvae have large, curved mandibles and eat beetle larvae and insect pupae.

• OCCl JRRENCE Worldwide, especially in warmer regions of Africa and South America. In sandy, dry areas or woodland.

• Remark This family contains the world's largest flics. The larvae of Mydas heros live inside the nests of leaf-cutter ants, where they cat scarab beetle larvae.

last segment of long antennae swollen or i clubbed

Larvae may be cylindrical and taper at the head end.

Larvae may be cylindrical and taper at the head end.

* dark, wasplike appearance

Mydas heros looks like a dark wasp. It is a large, strong-legged fly from South America.

* dark, wasplike appearance

Mydas heros looks like a dark wasp. It is a large, strong-legged fly from South America.

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