Twowinged Flies

HT I IK ORDHR DlPTERA contains 130

_ families vand 122,000 species.

These insects have just one pair of wings; the hindwings are reduced to small, club-shaped balancing organs called halteres. Some are wingless. There are two suborders. The delicate and slender Nematocera (Bibionidae to Tipulidae below) have slim antennae. The Brachycera, divided into Orthorrhapha and Cyclorrhapha (and represented here by the families Acroceridae to Tephritidae) are more robust, with short, stout antennae that have fewer than six segments. Metamorphosis is complete.

Two-winged flies are vital pollinators, parasites, predators, and decomposers in all kinds of habitats. Many, however, damage crops or carry diseases that have a huge impact on animals and humans.

Order OlPTERA

Family BlBlONIDAE

March flies

These hairy flies are black or dark brown. Males have large heads with eyes that touch. Females have smaller heads and separated eyes. Despite the common name, few fly before April.

• LIFE CYCLli Females dig into soil, where they lay batches of eggs. The larvae can be found in soil, compost, dung, and leaf litter.

• ()(:< a JRREN<:E Worldwide. In pastures, meadows, woods, and gardens.

I ,ARVAL are long and slightly flat, with a rough surface or projections.

I ,ARVAL are long and slightly flat, with a rough surface or projections.

Family BlBlONIDAE

large head with eyes touching ♦ on top

bristly black body iii mo marc1 is a European species. Adults emerge in early spring, when mating swarms are seen flying clumsily with their legs hanging down.

bristly black body

Length ylh_y„in (0.5-1.1cm)

Larval feeding habits 0 ^

Order 0,PTKKA

Family CECIDOMY1IDAE

No. of species c^ qqq

Larvae are long or slightly flat, with a small, conical head.

Gall midges

1 he delicate gall midge has long, slender legs. It may be white, pale yellow to green, or brown. The wings have only a few unbranched, longitudinal veins.

• LIFE CYCLE Most species lay eggs inside plants, producing galls in which the larvae grow. Some lay eggs on decaying matter, moist soil, or host plants. Their larvae eat mites, rotting plant matter, or fungi.

• OCCURRENCE Worldwide. Anywhere near decaying matter, fungi, or their host plants.

• REMARK Many gall midges harm vital crops.

Crcidomyia species are difficult to identify, but the type of gall they make can aid identification.

threadlike < antennae

Larvae are long or slightly flat, with a small, conical head.

Order i)IPTKRA

Family CkraTOPOGONIDAE

No. of species 4 qqq small head in relation to thorax indistinct vein patterns, especially at end of wings

0 0

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