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Rock Crawlers

^jp i ik order grylloblaitodea

_ consists of a single family, with

25 specics. These small and wingless insects were first discovered in the Canadian Rockies in 1906, and were initially considered to be a primitive family belonging to the order Orthoptera (see pp.60-65).

Rock crawlers have slender cerci at the end of their abdomen. The small head bears threadlike antennae with 22 to 40 segments and simple, biting, forward-facing mandibles. Eyes may be small or totally absent. Early stages look rather like immature earwigs, and the females have a short ovipositor.

Rock crawlers are found in eastern Asia and North America. Most species belong to the genus Grylloblatta, which is native to western United States and Canada. The members of this genus are adapted to mountainous conditions and low temperatures and are commonly found in rotting wood or moving over rocks, snow, and ice after dark - hence the common name, ice bugs.

Rock crawlers are good daytime and nocturnal hunters, eating live, recently dead, windblown, or torpid prey items. They may also eat moss and plant matter, especially when they are young. Metamorphosis is incomplete.

Order GRYLLOBLATLODKA

Family GRYLLOBLATIÏDAK

No. of species 75

• forwarcl-Jacing mandibles antennae

(i KYI. I.OR I AIT A SPKCIKS are found under stones and on open ground in autumn and spring. They spend the short summers underground or in ereviees.

flat head abdomen lighter in color at sides

overall pet le yellow coloration s tenner tegs ovipositor just a < little shorter than cerci

• forwarcl-Jacing mandibles antennae

(i KYI. I.OR I AIT A SPKCIKS are found under stones and on open ground in autumn and spring. They spend the short summers underground or in ereviees.

Rock crawlers

I hese insects are pale brown, yellow-brown, or gray. The body has a covering of short hairs, which may be dense or sparse, depending on species.

• Lilt; Cycle Mating may last up to four hours, and the female may not lay her eggs for several months. When she does, she lays them in rotten wood, moss, rock crevices, and soil. Nymphal development may take more than five years, and there may be as many as nine nymphal stages.

• OCCl irrence Cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. In subalpine deciduous forests, mountainous areas, and limestone caves.

flat head abdomen lighter in color at sides overall pet le yellow coloration s tenner tegs ovipositor just a < little shorter than cerci

A Gryu.obiatta campode1formis, or the Northern Rock Crawler, is found at high altitudes in North America and Canada, near glaciers and on rocks and damp scree slopes.

Crickets and Grasshoppers

_ of crickets, grasshoppers, and their relatives form the order Orthoptera. They have chewing mouthparts and hindlegs that are adapted for jumping. Most species have toughened fore wings to protect the larger hind wings.

These insects are found in a range of terrestrial habitats. Singing is common, usually by males to attract mates, and metamorphosis is incomplete. There are two suborders: Knsifera and Caelifera. The Knsifera, typical of tropical and subtropical regions, comprise crickets and katydids (the selection here runs from Gryllacrididae to Tettigoniidae). The Caelifera, dominant in temperate areas, comprise grasshoppers and locusts (the selection of families runs from Acrididae to Tetrigidae).

dm Li Adas SPK< :II:S hunt for small insects after dark and will also eat freshly dead prey.

this species has relatively long wings

very long antennae than three times the length o f the /tody

Order QrtHOPTKRA

Family GryLLACRIDIDAK

No. of species

Leaf-rollinc crickets

1 rue to their name, many of these crickets roll leaves into a kind of nest in which they hide during the day. The antennae are long and threadlike. In females, the ovipositor is long - often longer than the rest of the body - and has a slight upward curve.

• LiFL CYCLL Lggs arc laid on hark, vegetation, and sometimes on the ground.

• OCCIJRKKNCL Mainly tropical regions. In trees; sometimes on lower vegetation or on the ground.

dm Li Adas SPK< :II:S hunt for small insects after dark and will also eat freshly dead prey.

this species has relatively long wings long, curved ovipositor llYALOGRYLIACRIS SI/HIWBIIJS is found in northern and southern parts of Australia.

very long antennae than three times the length o f the /tody

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