Whites and sulphurs

I lie wings of these very common butterflies arc usually white, yellow, or orange with black or dark gray markings. The pigmentation of the wing scales comes from by-products of food eaten by the caterpillars.

• LlEE CYCLE Females typically lay single, elongate, ribbed eggs on a wide range of host plants. The caterpillars have no spines or projections, but the pupae have a distinctive spiny projection that arises from the head end, and are held upright on the host plant by a silk "belt."

• OCCl RRENCE Worldwide. In a wide range of habitats. They arc often seen in groups around bird droppings, urine, or puddles in sunshine. Some species migrate in large numbers.

• REMARK Many species are crop pests. The Large White (Pirns bmssirae) and the Small White (P. rapae) are serious pests of cabbage crops.

dark mark • on pale wings hindwing has •— whitish upperstde and pale yellow underside with scattered gray scales distinctive orange tip on male's formings •

distinctive orange tip on male's formings •

A ANTHOCHARIS CARI)AMINKS occurs across Europe and Asia. In both sexes, the undersides of the hindwings are mottled green. The male has orange tips on its forewings.

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