Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary

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Causes of Pest Outbreaks

Insect outbreaks can be triggered through intervention by man, i.e. through the use of insecticides, irrigation, fertilizer or cultivars lacking resistance to insects. Of these, it is insecticides that have had the most widespread influence on insect pest outbreaks. They can be an indirect cause of insect pest outbreaks by a number of means including reduction of natural enemies, removal of competitive species and secondary pest outbreaks, and

Approaches and Objectives

On individual farms, yield loss assessments are normally carried out to establish criteria on which to base crop and pest management decisions. Crops are normally considered in isolation and the effect of a single major pest on yield is evaluated. Detailed observation and experimentation are required in order to assess the impact of the pest on crop yield under a variety of conditions, such as the timing of infestation in relation to crop growth stage, the weather and the use of different crop production practices, e.g. fertilizer and pesti

Dung Beetles and Biocontrol

Preventing and controlling dissemination of pathogens and transmission of helminths of veterinary importance can be achieved by a combination of strict sanitary and cultural practices. Removal of dung and organic waste from animal enclosures, as well as sterilization of manure before it is used as fertilizer, helps to interrupt the transmission cycle of parasites by reducing the chances of beetles ingesting worm eggs. Rotation of pastured animals also can limit contact between the definitive hosts and intermediate beetle hosts. Increased abundance of scarabaeid dung beetles that aids in the rapid removal of dung, by both ingestion and burial, has been found beneficial in reducing infestations with intestinal nematodes that do not use beetles as intermediate hosts, but that are transmitted from animal to animal by dung ingestion (Fincher 1975).

Degradation and fragmentation of ecosystems

Ivermectin is used to control nematodes and parasitic arthropods in cattle, and has been speculated to be a risk to dung beetles. Although there is indeed an initial depression of dung beetle diversity, after 2 months, populations return to normal (Scholtz and Kriiger, 1995) (Figure 4.1). However, some results from Irish pastures have indicated that the use of chemical fertilizers and veterinary drugs such as ivermectin alongside removal of herbaceous field boundaries can be detrimental to dung beetle diversity (Hutton and Giller, 2003).

Artificial control pats

The question that now arises is that with a projected increase in pesticide usage of 270 compared with present levels by the year 2050 (Tilman et al., 2001), the environmental impacts need to be considered in more detail, especially as these impacts are synergistic with other impacts, from increased fertilizer input to landscape fragmentation and invasive alien organisms.

Macrotermes carbonarius

Diet These termites collect mostly dead grass, twigs, and other plant debris (duh-BREE). These plant materials are hauled below ground into the nest. Small workers chew up the material, eat it, and then deposit their droppings as fertilizer on masses of spongelike fungus. The spores, or reproductive bodies that sprout on the outer surface of the fungus, are then fed to the younger termites in the colony. Older termites eat the remains of old fungus.

Objectives and Strategies

May reduce the possibility of successful utilization of that plant as a host by an insect species, race, biotype or individual (Beck, 1965). Reiterated in terms appropriate to crop production, host plant resistance represents the inherent ability of crop plants to restrict, retard or overcome pest infestations (Kumar, 1984) and thereby to improve the yield and or quality of the harvestable crop product. From the point of view of the farmer, horticulturist and others, the use of resistant cultivars represents one of the simplest and most convenient methods of insect pest control, provided that the culti-vars do not require expensive inputs of fertilizer in order to guarantee high yields.

The Stakeholders in Pest Management

Commercial enterprises generate income through the provision of services, products or a combination of the two. Within agribusiness there is a greater emphasis on manufacturing and sale of products rather than the service side of the industry. Growers expect to budget for tangible items such as machinery, pesticides and fertilizer but the concept of purchasing, for example advice, is less acceptable (Zalom, 1993). Hence, product inputs tend to dominate agribusiness in general and in pest management control products have gained in importance since the turn of this century. Whereas chemical pesticides were the predominate type of control product in the 1960s, since that time there has been a proliferation of different types of pest management products including monitoring devices (e.g. insect traps) biopesticides (e.g. Bt) semiochemicals (e.g. for mating disruption) insect parasitoids (e.g. Trichogramma spp.) and predators (e.g. Chrysoperla carnea) and most recently genetically...

Area Wide Strategy for Management of Rice Stem Borers

The nature of the local agro-ecosystems and the characteristics of dispersal of rice stem borers among habitats suggest that an area-wide approach is probably the best way to achieve the objectives of managing these pests in ways that reduce their densities to below economically damaging thresholds while maintaining the rural environment and safeguarding the health of farmers. Also, the national policy of improving food safety requires an area-wide approach to the design and implementation of rice pest management programmes. Addressing large-scale multiple-source pollution caused by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), is the main challenge for restarting clean-food production in the Yangtze Delta region. Effective control of stem borers and reductions in chemical insecticide applications are the main ways of addressing this challenge.

Veterinary Importance

Nagana continues to have a major impact in preventing the development of commercial domestic animal production over about one-third of the African continent. The scarcity of domestic animals results in a severe lack of animal protein for use as human food, a lack of draught animals for use in crop production, and the absence of manure suitable for use as fertilizer. At present, about 40 million cattle and millions of sheep, goats, horses, mules, pigs, and camels are at risk of infection in Africa. Unlike African sleeping sickness, in which human disease does not occur over the entire distribution of tsetse vectors, nagana occurs wherever tsetse are found, in addition to other areas where infection can be maintained by mechanical transmission by biting flies other than tsetse.

Condition of the Host

The ability of a host to withstand pest infestation may be due as much to its general state or condition as to any inherent resistance. A healthy and fit animal or plant can have a greater tolerance of pest attack than an unhealthy one. The immunological response of humans and animals can be impaired by any number of factors that can indirectly affect their susceptibility to pest attack. The immunologi-cal response of cattle to the ticks Boophilus microplus is affected among other things by stress, photoperiod and infestation with other parasites, while their resistance to the cattle grub Hypoderma lineatum can be impaired by a vitamin A deficiency (Drummond et al., 1988). In human, animal and plant systems such factors may be influenced by the use of cultural control techniques. These are techniques that can be used to improve the condition of the host and thereby make it more tolerant of pest attack. Of course, the converse is also possible, since crop plants provided with adequate...

Case Study Modification of habitat to control the lone star tick Amblyomma americanum a pest of cattle Meyer et al 1982

The habitat modification evaluated in this study consisted of a total mechanical clearing of all accessible land on the chosen field, followed by new pasture establishment. After the application of fertilizer, fescue, annual ryegrass and white clover were sown. Data on the size of the tick populations and on the physical parameters (percentage soil moisture, soil temperature, soil surface temperature, air temperature, percentage relative humidity and light intensity) were collected in 1978 prior to habitat modification. These same parameters were then measured and compared after habitat modification to evaluate their effect.

History and conservation measures

This is the threat currently facing the Nashville crayfish in its Mill Creek habitat. A constant barrage of pollutants has been flowing into the creek. Industries have built warehouses right up to the edge of the creek's banks. Nearby roads and parking lots drain into the creek. Upstream from the crayfish's habitat, pesticides and fertilizers sprayed on farmland run off into the creek.

Insect aggregations

Insects disappear from our planet at a rhythm of around one species every quarter of an hour. Deforestation, fertilizers, insecticides, urbanisation and construction of roads are the main causes for this fast rate of extinction. However, our activities help certain populations to grow to the size of millions of individuals at some places. Those which disappear and move towards extinction, are insects linked to a specific host-plant, as well as apterous or brachypterous forms, such as Timarcha, incapable of flying to populate another suitable area. Those which fly have a thousand chances more to escape extinction. Among surviving insects, many show formation of groups of a considerable size or aggregations.

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Despite the huge consumption of pesticides worldwide, there is no evidence that pesticides have been singularly responsible for any insect extinction. This is because non-persistent pesticides are generally applied only over a limited area over a relatively short time period. Persistent pesticides are more insidious, upsetting predator--prey relationships. These effects are often synergistic with other impacts, including the increased use of fertilizers and herbicides.

Crop rotation

The rotation of crop provides a means of maintaining soil fertility so that an appropriate rotation can produce better average yields than continuous cultivation of the same crop (Table 7.2 Webster and Wilson, 1980) without the need for additional fertilizers. The type of crops used in the rotation will often be very important for maximizing yield. There may be some advantage in using crops that have different rooting habits and hence vary demand between different soil layers, or using leguminous plants that can fix soil nitrogen. Another factor that could also influence the choice of crop types in a rotation is that combination which best reduces pest damage. Part of the value of crop rotations is their ability to prevent the build up of insect pests, as well as other pests such as weeds and pathogens.

Soil factors

Other crucial environmental factors affecting plant growth are properties of the soil, including its mineral status. Numerous observations relate insect growth and abundance to the chemistry of the soil on which their host plants grow. In agriculture, application of fertilizers is generally used to promote rapid, healthy plant growth and to increase yields. Fertilization primarily influences plant physiology but can also induce changes in plant morphology and phenology. Physiological responses are manifested by changes in nutrient composition, such as protein levels. Secondary metabolism is also affected, resulting in increased or decreased levels of secondary plant sub-stances.102 A meta-analysis of 147 literature reports presented overwhelming evidence that high nitrogen fertilization resulted in a decrease in foliar concentrations of a range of carbon-based secondary plant compounds.164 It should be realized that, when the increase of secondary compounds is slower than the rate of...

Parasol ants

New colonies of parasol ants are started in much the same way as in case of other ants. Occasionally winged queen ants are produced in the colony. A queen ant, which has freshly emerged from the pupal skin, makes a pellet of fungal filaments or mycelia in a fungal garden, puts the pellet in a small pocket at the base of her mouth parts, and flies away. After mating with a winged male during her flight, she settles down at a suitable spot, sheds her wings, and makes a small chamber in soil, which is the beginning of a new nest. She lays a large number of eggs, deposits her excreta and places over it the fungal pellet. The excreta provide the first fertilizer for the fungal growth.

The problem

Obtaining world food security is a complex and difficult task depending on many interrelated factors encompassing political, social and technical agendas (Ives et al., 1998). Agricultural research and development has over the last 30 years met the needs for improving agricultural production sufficient to barely meet requirements for feeding the world's growing population. This has largely been achieved through use of fertilizers, chemical pesticides and plant breeding. It is anticipated that further agricultural research and development will be able to meet the challenge to provide the required levels of food to meet continued population growth - at least up to a level where the world population stabilizes around 2035.